Reviews: HIV and cardiovascular diseaseHIV-related mechanisms in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseasesGibellini, Davide; Borderi, Marco; Clò, Alberto; Morini, Silvia; Miserocchi, Anna; Bon, Isabella; Ponti, Cristina; Re, Maria CarlaAuthor Information aMicrobiology Section, Department of Haematology and Oncological Sciences bInfectious Diseases Section, Department of Internal Medicine, Aging and Nephrology, University of Bologna, Bologna cDepartment of Life Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste dInteruniversity Consortium, National Institute Biostructure and Biosystems, Rome, Italy Correspondence to Davide Gibellini, Department of Haematology and Oncological Sciences, Microbiology Section, University of Bologna, St Orsola Hospital, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna, Italy Tel: +39 0514290927; fax: +39 051307397; e-mail: [email protected] Received 6 August, 2012 Revised 9 January, 2013 Accepted 20 March, 2013 Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine: November 2013 - Volume 14 - Issue 11 - p 780-790 doi: 10.2459/JCM.0b013e3283619331 Buy Metrics Abstract HIV-infected patients have a significantly higher risk of developing cardiovascular events during the progression of HIV disease. Atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular injury, pulmonary hypertension and thrombosis are consistently described in both combined antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated and naive HIV-positive patients as major clinical complications. Recent studies indicate that the pathogenesis of cardiovascular lesions in HIV-positive patients is related to direct and indirect effects of HIV infection on vessel structures, independently of traditional risk factors. HIV infection strongly interferes with the biology of several cellular targets such as macrophage and endothelial cells. Moreover, HIV induces a profound derangement of lipid metabolism and inflammatory cytokine networks that are directly involved in atherogenesis and progressive impairment of the cardiovascular system. In this review, we discuss these major HIV-related mechanisms able to promote atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases in HIV-positive patients. © 2013 Italian Federation of Cardiology. All rights reserved.