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Genesis of remote conditioning: action at a distance – ‘hypotheses non fingo’?

Przyklenk, Karin; Whittaker, Peter

Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine: March 2013 - Volume 14 - Issue 3 - p 180–186
doi: 10.2459/JCM.0b013e328358c8eb
Guest Editor: Gerd Heusch

Remote ischemic preconditioning is the phenomenon whereby brief episodes of ischemia–reperfusion applied in a distant organ or tissue render the myocardium resistant to infarction. The discovery of remote conditioning was not a serendipitous finding, but, rather, was predicted by mathematical modeling. In the current review, we describe how the hypothesis for remote conditioning was formulated and tested, how the paradigm has expanded to encompass a spectrum of remote triggers, and summarize the progress that has been made in elucidating the mechanisms responsible for this intriguing form of cardioprotection.

aCardiovascular Research Institute

bDepartment of Physiology

cDepartment of Emergency Medicine, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA

Correspondence to Karin Przyklenk, PhD, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Elliman Building, Room 1107, 421 E Canfield, Detroit, MI 48201, USATel: +1 313 577 9047; fax: +1 313 577 8615; e-mail:

Received 12 July, 2012

Revised 20 July, 2012

Accepted 1 August, 2012

© 2013 Italian Federation of Cardiology. All rights reserved.