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Cardiovascular and noncardiovascular comorbidities in patients with chronic heart failure

Metra, Marco; Zacà, Valerio; Parati, Gianfranco; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Bonadies, Maria; Ciccone, Marco; Cas, Alessandra Dei; Iacoviello, Massimo; Lagioia, Rocco; Lombardi, Carolina; Maio, Raffaele; Magrì, Damiano; Musca, Giuseppe; Padeletti, Margherita; Perticone, Francesco; Pezzali, Natalia; Piepoli, Massimo; Sciacqua, Angela; Zanolla, Luisa; Nodari, Savina; Filardi, Pasquale Perrone; Dei Cas, Livioon behalf of the Heart Failure Study Group of the Italian Society of Cardiology

Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine: February 2011 - Volume 12 - Issue 2 - p 76–84
doi: 10.2459/JCM.0b013e32834058d1
Review articles

A broad spectrum of concomitant disorders may complicate heart failure adding further morbidity and mortality risk. Comorbidities may be subdivided into cardiovascular and noncardiovascular. The first group includes hypertension, coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, arrhythmias and valvular heart disease. Noncardiovascular comorbidities include respiratory, endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, renal, hematopoietic, neurological as well as musculoskeletal conditions. In recent years, advances in the treatment of heart failure have not been attended by important changes in management of its comorbidities. They now seem to be major causes of the poor prognosis of heart failure patients. In this review we provide an updated summary of the epidemiological, pathophysiological and clinical characteristics of comorbidities as well as their potential impact for heart failure treatment.

aCardiology, Department of Experimental and Applied Medicine; University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy

bDivision of Cardiology, Cardiovascular and Thoracic Department, Santa Maria alle Scotte Hospital, Siena, Italy

cDepartment of Clinical Medicine and Prevention, University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy

dCentro Cardiologico Monzino - IRCCS, Italy

eInstitute of Cardiology, University of Milan, Milan, Italy

fDepartment of Respiratory Diseases, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA

gDepartment of Dynamic and Clinical Psychology, University ‘La Sapienza’, Rome, Italy

hInstitute of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Bari, Bari, Italy

iDepartment of Internal Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Parma, Italy

kCardiology Unit, Emergency and Transplantation Department, University of Bari, Italy

lDivision of Cardiology and Cardiac Rehabilitation, ‘S. Maugeri’ Foundation, IRCCS, Institute of Cassano Murge, Bari, Italy

mDepartment of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Cardiovascular Disease Unit, University Magna Græcia of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy

nDivision of Internal Medicine- Cetraro - A.S.P. Cosenza, Italy

oHeart Failure Unit, Cardiac Department, G. da Saliceto Hospital, Piacenza, Italy

pClinical Division of Cardiology, Azienda Hospital Istituti Ospitalieri di Verona, Verona, Italy

qDepartment of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular & Immunological Sciences, Federico II University, Naples, Italy

*Marco Metra and Valerio Zacà contributed equally to the writing of this article.

Received 5 May, 2010

Revised 29 July, 2010

Accepted 4 September, 2010

Correspondence to Professor Marco Metra, MD, Cardiology, Department of Experimental and Applied Medicine; University of Brescia, c/o Spedali Civili di Brescia, Piazza Spedali Civili 1, 25123 Brescia, Italy E-mail:

© 2011 Italian Federation of Cardiology. All rights reserved.