The relationship between acute-phase inflammatory markers in the setting of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and long-term outcomes is largely unexplored.
The aim of the study was to investigate the predictive power of acute-phase inflammatory markers following AMI for short-term and long-term mortality separately and modes of death.
In 220 unselected patients with AMI [median age 67 (interquartile range 60–74) years, women 26%], blood neutrophil granulocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and α1-acid glycoprotein were measured 1, 3 and 7 days after admission. All patients completed 7 years of follow-up. Endpoints were 1-year (short-term) and 2- to 7-year (long-term) mortality and modes of death, classified as nonsudden cardiovascular, sudden, and noncardiovascular death.
The short-term mortality rate was 18%. The long-term mortality rate was 26%. The short-term mortality risk was higher in patients in whom the markers were in the upper tertile. Fully adjusted hazard ratios (and 95% confidence interval) were 3.2 (1.4–7.9), 3.5 (1.7–7.9), 3.5 (1.6–8.6), and 6.1 (2.3–19.1) for neutrophil granulocyte, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and α1-acid glycoprotein, respectively. The excess mortality was chiefly due to nonsudden cardiovascular mortality [fully adjusted hazard ratios were 4.6 (1.7–14.7), 4.7 (1.9–13.7), 5.9 (2.0–21.3) and 5.5 (2.0–17.6), respectively], whereas no association was found with sudden death or noncardiovascular modes of death. In the long term, the association with mortality and modes of death was no longer significant.
The acute-phase inflammatory markers tested following AMI are independently and concordantly associated with short-term mortality and their prediction is associated only with nonsudden cardiovascular modes of death. These markers are not associated with long-term mortality.
aDepartment of Cardiology, Conegliano General Hospital, Conegliano, Italy
bDepartment of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, Adria General Hospital, Adria, Italy
cDepartment of Cardiology, Bassano General Hospital, Bassano del Grappa, Italy
dDepartment of Internal Medicine, Vittorio Veneto General Hospital, Vittorio Veneto, Italy
eDepartment of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
Received 23 May, 2009
Revised 25 August, 2009
Accepted 28 August, 2009
Correspondence to Professor Paolo Palatini, MD, Clinica Medica 4, University of Padova, via Giustiniani 2, 35128 Padova, Italy Tel: +39 049 8212278; fax: +39 049 8754179; e-mail: email@example.com