Scientific statementExercise prescription for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases: part IGiada, Franco; Biffi, Alessandro; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Anedda, Alberto; Belardinelli, Romualdo; Carlon, Roberto; Carù, Bruno; D'Andrea, Luigi; Delise, Pietro; De Francesco, Antonino; Fattirolli, Francesco; Guglielmi, Riccardo; Guiducci, Umberto; Pelliccia, Antonio; Penco, Maria; Perticone, Francesco; Thiene, Gaetano; Vona, Margherita; Zeppilli, PaoloAuthor Information aCardiovascular Department, Umberto I Hospital, Mestre-Venice, Italy bInstitute of Science and Sports Medicine, CONI, Rome, Italy cMonzino Cardiovascular Department, IRCCS, University of Milan, Milan, Italy dService of Sports Medicine, Parma, Italy eCardiovascular Department, G.M. Lancisi Hospital, Ancona, Italy fCardiovascular Department, Cardiology Unit, Cittadella Hospital, Padua, Italy gConsiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan, Italy hClinical Pathology, Federico II University, Naples, Italy iCardiovascular Department, Civic Hospital, Conegliano, Italy jService of Sports Cardiology, San Giovanni-Addolorata Hospital, Rome, Italy kCardiovascular Rehabilitation, Careggi Hospital, Florence, Italy lService of Sports Medicine, Azienda Policlinico Consorziale, Bari, Italy mCardiovascular Department, Arcispedale S. Maria Nuova, Reggio Emilia, Italy nCardiovascular Department, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy oUniversity of Magna Grecia, Catanzaro, Italy pInstitute of Pathology, University of Padua, Padua, Italy qCardiovascular Rehabilitation, Beauregard Hospital, Aosta, Italy rService of Sports Medicine, Sacro Cuore University, Rome, Italy Received 27 August, 2007 Accepted 18 October, 2007 A scientific statement from the Joint Italian Societies' Task Force on Sports Cardiology. This Task Force includes: Italian Federation of Sports Medicine (FMSI), Italian Society of Sports Cardiology (SIC Sport), Italian Association of Out-of-Hospital Cardiologists (ANCE), Italian Association of Hospital Cardiologists (ANMCO), Italian Group of Cardiac Rehabilitation (GICR), Italian Society of Cardiology (SIC). Experts consulted: Giuseppe Maria Andreozzi, Service of Angiology, University of Padua, Padua; Umberto Berrettini, Cardiovascular Department, G.M. Lancisi Hospital, Ancona; Antonio Bonetti, Sports Medicine, University of Parma, Parma; Raffaele Calabrò, Paediatric Cardiology, Second University of Naples, Naples; Armando Calzolari, Sports Medicine, Bambino Gesù Paediatric Hospital, Rome Pierluigi Colonna, Paediatric Cardiology, G.M. Lancisi Hospital, Ancona; Domenico Corrado, Cardiovascular Department, University of Padua, Padua; Roberto D'Ajello, Avvocato Generale, Corte d'Appello, Naples; Francesco De Falco, Sostituto Procuratore della Repubblica, Tribunale di Benevento; Bruno De Piccoli, Cardiovascular Department, Umberto I Hospital, Mestre-Venice; Daniele D'Este, Cardiovascular Department, Civic Hospital, Mirano, Venice; Marcello Faina, Institute of Science and Sports Medicine, CONI, Rome; Simona Giampaoli, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome; Alfredo Leone, Service of Vascular Rehabilitation, Carmide Hospital, Catania; Elio Palombi, Facoltà di Scienze Politiche, Second university of Naples, Naples; Fernando Maria Picchio, Paediatric Cardiology, University of Bologna, Bologna; Silvia Priori, Division of Molecular Cardiology, S. Maugeri Foundation, University of Pavia; Pavia Antonio Raviele, Cardiovascular Department, Umberto I Hospital, Mestre-Venice; Massimo Santini, Cardiovascular Department, San Filippo Neri Hospital, Rome; Berardo Sarubbi, Paediatric Cardiology, Second University of Naples, Naples; Sirio Simplicio, Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Bari, Bari; Gabriele Vignati, A. De Gasperis Cardiovascular Department, Niguarda Ca' Granda Hospital, Milan, Italy. Reviewers of the document: Paolo Alboni, Cardiovascular Department, Civic Hospital, Cento, Ferrara; Giuseppe Calsamiglia, Cardiovascular Department, Maugeri Foundation, Pavia; Maurizio Casasco, Sports Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia; Marcello Disertori, Cardiovascular Department, Civic Hospital, Trento; Pantaleo Giannuzzi, Cardiovascular Department, Maugeri Foundation, Veruno, Novara; Maurizio Lunati, Cardiovascular Department, Niguarda Cà Granda Hospital, Milan; Carlo Menozzi, Cardiovascular Department, Civic Hospital, Reggio Emilia; Antonio Notaristefano, Cardiovascular Department, Civic Hospital, Perugia; Giuseppe Vergara, Cardiovascular Department, Civic Hospital, Rovereto, Trento, Italy. Correspondence to Franco Giada MD, Cardiovascular Department, Umberto I Hospital, Via Circonvallazione 50, 30170 Venice-Mestre, Italy Tel: +39 041 2607201; e-mail: [email protected] Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine: May 2008 - Volume 9 - Issue 5 - p 529-544 doi: 10.2459/JCM.0b013e3282f7ca77 Buy Metrics Abstract Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory studies have provided definitive evidence that physical activity is able to improve fitness and reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Moreover, physical exercise also seems to significantly reduce the risk of developing other chronic diseases such as obesity, osteoporosis, diabetes, tumours and depression. Promoting physical activity in the general population is therefore one of the primary objectives of our healthcare institutions. Although the benefits of an active lifestyle have been demonstrated by numerous scientific data, only a few numbers of Italians and Europeans take up regular physical exercise. To promote physical activity, both in the general population and in subjects affected by cardiovascular diseases, the Italian Federation of Sports Medicine, the Italian Society of Sports Cardiology, the Italian Association of Hospital Cardiologists, the Italian Society of Cardiology, the Italian Association of Out-of-Hospital Cardiologists and the Italian Group of Cardiac Rehabilitation have promoted the constitution of a Task Force made up of experts in the fields of sports cardiology. The document produced by the Task Force is intended for healthcare professionals and deals with the role of physical activity in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. It examines the beneficial effects of physical activity on the cardiovascular system, while analysing the possible risks involved and how they can be avoided. The rational principles underlying the prescription of physical activity in the cardiologic setting are described, as are the modalities for prescribing such activity. © 2008 Italian Federation of Cardiology. All rights reserved.