Original articlesMediterranean diet and n-3 fatty acids in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseasede Lorgeril, Michel; Salen, PatriciaAuthor Information PRETA-TIMC, Equipe Cœur & Nutrition, CNRS UMR 5525-UJF-INP, University Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France Correspondence to Dr Michel de Lorgeril, Laboratoire PRETA (Cœur & Nutrition), Faculté de Médecine, Université Joseph Fourier, Domaine de la Merci, 38706 La Tronche (Grenoble), France E-mail: [email protected] The authors report no conflicts of interest. Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine: September 2007 - Volume 8 - Issue - p S38-S41 doi: 10.2459/01.JCM.0000289268.90482.7b Buy Metrics Abstract Consumption of a traditional Mediterranean diet and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was shown to be effective in reducing the complications of coronary heart disease in randomised controlled trials. Epidemiological studies and controlled trials indicate that plant- and sea-derived n-3 PUFAs are likely to be important mediators of the protection provided by traditional Mediterranean diets. Of note, consumption of marine n-3 PUFAs from fish and other seafood is high in certain Mediterranean countries (Spain, Portugal), but quite low in others (Italy, Greece). A relative insufficiency of dietary marine n-3 PUFAs among Italians might in part explain the results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial, in which a modest supplementation of eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid (∼850 mg/day) produced striking reductions in coronary heart disease death (−30%) and sudden cardiac death (−45%) among patients with known heart disease. The protection provided by n-3 PUFAs from both plant and marine sources may be partly dependent on other dietary factors. Plant and marine n-3 PUFAs are likely to be major mediators of the protective effect provided by traditional Mediterranean diets. © 2007 Italian Federation of Cardiology. All rights reserved.