As the most viable method for investigating in vivo anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, video analysis is critical for understanding ACL injury mechanisms and advancing preventative training programs. Despite the limited number of published studies involving video analysis, much has been gained through evaluating actual injury scenarios.
Studies meeting criteria for this systematic review were collected by performing a broad search of the ACL literature with use of variations and combinations of video recordings and ACL injuries. Both descriptive and analytical studies were included.
Descriptive studies have identified specific conditions that increase the likelihood of an ACL injury. These conditions include close proximity to opposing players or other perturbations, high shoe-surface friction, and landing on the heel or the flat portion of the foot. Analytical studies have identified high-risk joint angles on landing, such as a combination of decreased ankle plantar flexion, decreased knee flexion, and increased hip flexion.
The high-risk landing position appears to influence the likelihood of ACL injury to a much greater extent than inherent risk factors. As such, on the basis of the results of video analysis, preventative training should be applied broadly. Kinematic data from video analysis have provided insights into the dominant forces that are responsible for the injury (i.e., axial compression with potential contributions from quadriceps contraction and valgus loading). With the advances in video technology currently underway, video analysis will likely lead to enhanced understanding of non-contact ACL injury.
1Functional and Applied Biomechanics, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland
2The Orthopaedic Center, a Division of CAO, Rockville, Maryland
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