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Odontoid Fractures

A Critical Analysis Review

Goz, Vadim MD1; Spiker, William Ryan MD1; Lawrence, Brandon MD1; Brodke, Darrel MD1; Spina, Nicholas MD1

doi: 10.2106/JBJS.RVW.18.00122
Review Articles with Critical Analysis Component

  • » Odontoid fractures are common cervical spine fractures with a bimodal age distribution, which is gradually shifting to more representation in the elderly population.
  • » Type-II odontoid fractures are associated with higher nonunion rates compared with Type I and Type III.
  • » A surgical procedure for Type-II fractures in the elderly population is associated with a higher union rate and potentially less mortality.
  • » Certain Type-II fractures can be treated nonoperatively, depending on fracture morphology and displacement.
  • » Type-I and III fractures can typically be treated nonoperatively.

1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah

E-mail address for N. Spina:

Investigation performed at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah

Disclosure: There was no source of external funding for this work. On the Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest forms, which are provided with the online version of the article, one or more of the authors checked “yes” to indicate that the author had a relevant financial relationship in the biomedical arena outside the submitted work (

Copyright © 2019 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
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