Nonsurgical Interventional Spine Pain Procedures: Outcomes and Complications : JBJS Reviews

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Nonsurgical Interventional Spine Pain Procedures

Outcomes and Complications

Whitaker, Colin D. BA; Stone, Benjamin K. MSc; Gregorczyk, Jerzy A.; Alsoof, Daniel MBBS; Hardacker, Kyle MD; Diebo, Bassel G. MD; Daniels, Alan MD; Basques, Bryce MD

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JBJS Reviews 11(4):e22.00235, April 2023. | DOI: 10.2106/JBJS.RVW.22.00235


  • » Nonsurgical interventional spine pain procedures provide an additional treatment option for lower back pain at the traditional bifurcation of conversative vs. operative management.
  • » Transforaminal epidural steroid injections, radiofrequency ablations, intrathecal drug delivery, and spinal cord stimulation were found to be effective and safe techniques when applied to their specific indication.
  • » Thermal annuloplasty and minimally invasive lumbar decompression showed mixed support.
  • » Discography, sacroiliac joint injections, and spinous process spacers lacked sufficient evidence to support efficacy.
  • » Medial branch blocks and facet joint injections were found to be useful diagnostic tools.

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