1Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery (M.M., T.L., C.-C.P., S.M., Y.P.Y., and S.B.G.), Material Science and Engineering (Y.P.Y.), and Bioengineering (Y.P.Y. and S.B.G.), Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University School of Engineering, Stanford, California
3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata, Japan
E-mail address for Y.P. Yang: firstname.lastname@example.org
E-mail address for S.B. Goodman: email@example.com
Investigation performed at the Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California
Disclosure: This study was funded in part by National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants R01AR072613, R01AR057837, U01AR069395, R01AR073145, and R01AR063717 from the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS). The Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest forms are provided with the online version of the article (http://links.lww.com/JBJSREV/A508).