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Idiopathic Rotational Abnormalities of the Lower Extremities in Children and Adults

Gruskay, Jordan A., MD1; Fragomen, Austin T., MD1; Rozbruch, S. Robert, MD1

doi: 10.2106/JBJS.RVW.18.00016
Review Articles

  • * Rotational malalignment of the lower extremity is a potential cause of hip, knee, and ankle pain.
  • * Physical examination must include observation of gait and an assessment of femoral rotation and the thigh-foot axis with the patient prone.
  • * Advanced imaging helps to quantify the degree of deformity, improving the accuracy of the preoperative plan.
  • * Surgical correction of rotational malalignment of the femur and tibia is reserved for severe, symptomatic deformity.
  • * Future software that allows for 3-dimensional assessment of alignment and preoperative planning will further aid in the correction of the complex deformities.

1Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY

E-mail address for S.R. Rozbruch:

Investigation performed at the Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY

Disclosure: No external funds were received in support of this study. On the Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest forms, which are provided with the online version of the article, one or more of the authors checked “yes” to indicate that the author had a relevant financial relationship in the biomedical arena outside the submitted work (

Copyright © 2019 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
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