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JBJS, Inc. Journals Reference Formatting Guidelines

JBJS uses the following reference formatting in our articles. It is not required for submitted papers to have references in exactly this format, but it is appreciated. When using citation generators, please note that JBJS does not require DOIs or epub dates.

Reference Type

Journals
Books
Web References
Meeting Abstracts/Papers
Legal Documents
Miscellaneous

JOURNALS

ENGLISH-LANGUAGE
Author. Title. Journal. Year;Volume(Issue):First page-last page.

  • Andrews M, Noyes FR, Barber-Westin SD. Anterior cruciate ligament allograft reconstruction in the skeletally immature athlete. Am J Sports Med. 1994;22(1):48-54.

FOREIGN-LANGUAGE
Author. [Title]. Journal. Year;Volume(Issue):First page-last page. Language.

  • Lambotte JC, Thomazeau H, Cathelineau G, Lancien G, Minet J, Langlais F. [Tricalcium phosphate, an antibiotic carrier: a study focused on experimental osteomyelitis in rabbits]. Chirurgie. 1998;123:572-9. French.
  • Charrois O, Begue T, Muller GP, Masquelet AC. [Plantar dislocation of the tarso-metatarsal articulation (Lisfranc articulation). Apropos of a case]. Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot. 1998;84:197-201. French.

SUPPLEMENTS
Always match PubMed. Supplements will not be consistent between journals.

  • Hedman TP, Kostuik JP, Fernie GR, Hellier WG. Design of an intevertebral disc prosthesis. Spine. 1991;16(6 Suppl):S256-60.
  • Bellamy N. Pain assessment in osteoarthritis: experience with the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index. Semin Arthritis Rheumat. 1989;18(4 Suppl 2):14-7.
  • Gordon S. Biology of the microphage. J Cell Sci Suppl. 1986;4:267-86.
  • Amstutz HC, Grigoris P. Metal on metal bearings in hip arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1996;328 Suppl:S11-24.

DISCUSSION AT END
When author has given ending-page number that includes discussion, simply use that as ending-page number without specifying “discussion.”

ERRATUM
Author. Title. Journal. Year;Volume(Issue):First page-last page. Erratum in: Journal. Year;Volume(Issue):First page-last page.

  • Agarwala S, Jain DK, Joshi VR, Sule A. Efficacy of alendronate, a bisphosphonate, in the treatment of AVN of the hip. A prospective open-label study. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2005;44:352-9. Erratum in: Rheumatology (Oxford). 2005;44:569.

EPUB AHEAD OF PRINT
Author. Title. Journal. Year;Volume(Issue) [Epub ahead of print]

  • Lenart BA, Neviaser AS, Lyman S, Chang CC, Edobor-Osula F, Steele B, van der Meulen MC, Lorich DG, Lane JM. Association of low-energy femoral fractures with prolonged bisphosphonate use: a case control study. Osteoporos Int. 2008 Dec 9 [Epub ahead of print].

ABSTRACT
Author. Title [abstract]. Journal. Year;Volume(Issue):First page-last page.

  • Sorrels RB, Stiehl JB. Long-term outcomes of a rotating platform mobile bearing prosthesis after TKA [abstract]. J Arthroplasty. 2004;19:255.

LETTER/COMMENTARY PRINTED ONLINE ONLY
Author. Title. Journal. Year Mon Day. URL. Accessed Year Mon Day.

  • Lack DZ. Letter regarding Patients can provide a valid assessment of quality of life, functional status, and general health on the day they undergo knee surgery (2008;90:264-70). 2008 Feb 6. http://www.ejbjs.org/cgi/eletters/90/2/264.
  • Lingard EA. Commentary and perspective on Patients can provide a valid assessment of quality of life, functional status, and general health on the day they undergo knee surgery (2008;90:264-70). 2008 Feb. http://www.ejbjs.org/Comments/2008/cp_feb08_lingard.dtl. Accessed 2008 Feb 2.

BOOKS

BOOK WITH AUTHOR
Author. Title. Edition, Volume. City: Publisher; Year.

  • Kaplan EB. Functional and surgical anatomy of the hand. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott; 1965.

BOOK WITH EDITOR
Editor, editors. Title. Edition, Volume. City: Publisher; Year.

  • Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P, editors. The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 8th ed. New York: Pergamon; 1990.

BOOK WITH EDITOR; SPECIFIC CHAPTER CITED
Editor, editors. Title. Edition, Volume. City: Publisher; Year. Chapter title; p Pagenumbers

  • Singleton P, Sainsbury D, editors. Dictionary of microbiology and molecular biology. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley; 1987. Plasmid in science; p 682-9.

BOOK WITH EDITOR; SPECIFIC CHAPTER CITED WITH SEPARATE AUTHORS
Author. Chapter title. In: Editor, editor. Book title. Edition. City: Publisher; Year. Pagenumbers.

  • Blaser RB, Matthews LS. Complications of prosthetic knee arthroplasty. In: Epps CH, editor. Complications in orthopaedic surgery. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott; 1994. p 1057-86.
  • Buckwalter JA, Cruess RL. Healing of the musculoskeletal tissues. In: Rockwood CA Jr, Green DP, Bucholz RW, editors. Fractures in adults. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott; 1999. p 181-222.

BOOK WITH EDITOR; CHAPTER WITH SEPARATE TITLE AND AUTHORS; TRANSLATOR, AND TRANSLATION NOTE
Author. Title. Edition, Volume. Translator, translator; Editor name, editor. City: Publisher; Year. Translation of.

  • Luzikov VN. Mitochondrial biogenesis and breakdown. Galkin AV, translator; Roodyn DB, editor. New York: Consultants Bureau; 1985. Translation of Reguliatsiia formirovaniia mitokhonrii.

BOOK WITH SEPARATE AUTHORS AND EDITORS, EDITION AND VOLUME

  • Andersson GBJ. The epidemiology of spinal disorders. In: Frymoyer JW, editor. The adult spine: principles and practice. 2nd ed, vol 1. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven; 1997. p 93-141.

BOOK WITH VOLUME WITH SEPARATE TITLE
Author. Title. Volume, Volume title. City: Publisher; Year.

  • Cajori F. A history of mathematical notations. Vol 2, Notation mainly in higher mathematics. Chicago: Open Court; 1929.

BOOK WITH A DOMESTIC AND A FOREIGN PUBLISHER OR A DOMESTIC AND A FOREIGN LOCATION
In general, list only the American publisher and the American location. However, if the source is published in a foreign language, check whether it is also offered in English translation. If it is, list the information for the English-language version; if it is not, list the foreign publisher and the foreign location. If particular pages are cited, use whichever version (domestic or foreign) was listed by the manuscript’s author, since the page numbers may be different in versions written in a different language.

  • Zhong-Wei C, Guang-Jian Z. Epiphyseal transplantation. In: Rho RWH, editor. Microsurgical technique in orthopaedics. Boston: Butterworths, 1988.

WEB REFERENCES

Note: not all elements will be relevant or available for every citation.

STANDARD FORMAT
Author of document or website. Title. Date. Accessed Year Mon Day. URL

  • Department of Health and Human Services. Protecting personal health information in research: Understanding the HIPAA Privacy Rule. Accessed 2019 Oct 3. http://privacyruleandresearch.nih.gov/pdf/HIPAA_Booklet_4-14-2003.pdf
  • National Institutes of Health, Office of Human Subjects Research. Guidelines for the conduct of research involving human subjects at the National Institutes of Health. Accessed 2019 Feb 17. http://www.nihtraining.com/ohsrsite/guidelines/graybook.html
  • Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. FDA public health advisory: paroxetine. 2005. Accessed 2019 Jan 5. http://www.fda.gov/cder/drug/advisory/paroxetine200512.htm

MEETING ABSTRACTS/PAPERS

PUBLISHED IN A PROGRAM BOOKLET
Author. Title. In: Program Booklet, Meeting title; Year Mon Day(s). City, State: Association; Year. p Pagenumbers.

  • Gaussens G, Berthet J, Cornet L, Nicaise M. Improvement of creep and wear properties of polyethylenes. In: Proceedings of The Second World Congress on Biomaterials, Tenth Annual Meeting of the Society for Biomaterials; 1984 Mar 12-14. Washington, DC: Society of Biomaterials; 1984. p 314.

ABSTRACT PUBLISHED IN A PROGRAM BOOKLET
Author. Title [abstract]. In: Program Booklet, Meeting title; Year Mon Day(s). City, State: Association; Year. p Pagenumbers. Abstract no.

  • Smith J, Jones R. Polyethylene liners [abstract]. In: Proceedings of The Second World Congress on Biomaterials, Tenth Annual Meeting of the Society for Biomaterials; 1984 Mar 12-14. Washington DC: Society of Biomaterials; 1984. p 316. Abstract no. 1210.

PAPER READ AT A MEETING
Author. Title. Read at Meeting title; Year Mon Day(s); City, State. Paper no.

  • Engh GA. Correcting instability without constrained components. Read at the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; 2000 Mar 15-19; Orlando, FL.
  • Sung J, Siegel J, Tornetta 3rd P, Bhandari M. “Statistical difference” does NOT mean clinically important! An evaluation of orthopaedic trauma randomized trials. Read at the Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Trauma Association; 2006 Oct 5-7; Phoenix, AZ. Paper no. 5.

POSTER PRESENTED AT A MEETING
Author. Title. Presented as a poster exhibit at Meeting Title; Year Mon Day(s); City, State. Poster no.

  • Beaule PE, Zaragoza EJ. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium arthrography to assess acetabular cartilage delamination. Presented as a poster exhibit at the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; 2006 Mar 22-25; Chicago, IL. Poster no. 451.

SCIENTIFIC EXHIBIT PRESENTED AT A MEETING
Author. Title. Presented as a scientific exhibit at Meeting Title; Year Mon Day(s); City, State. Scientific exhibit no.

  • Tarabichi Y, Tarabichi S, Hawari M. How to achieve full flexion after total knee replacement. Presented as a scientific exhibit at the 76th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; 2009 Mar 25-28; Las Vegas, NV. Scientific exhibit no. SE16.

SYMPOSIUM SESSION AT A MEETING
Author. Title. Symposium session at the Meeting Title; Year Mon Day(s); City, State.

  • Kurzweil PR. ACL graft and fixation options. Symposium session at the 76th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; 2009 Mar 25-28; Las Vegas, NV.

INSTRUCTIONAL COURSE AT A MEETING
Author. Title. Instructional course at the Meeting Title; Year Mon Day(s); City, State. Course no.

  • Mallon WJ, Rockwood CA Jr, Snyder SJ, Burkhead WZ Jr. Massive rotator cuff tears: the surgeon’s dilemma. Instructional course at the 76th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; 2009 Mar 25-28; Las Vegas, NV. Course no. 229.

LEGAL DOCUMENTS

PUBLIC LAW WITH STATUTE NUMBER

  • Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1989, Pub. L. 101-239, 103 Stat. 2106. 1989 Dec 19.

UNITED STATES CODE WITH SECTION

  • Social Security Act of 1935, §1848, 42 U.S.C. 1395w-4. Payment for physicians’ services. 1935 Aug 14.
  • Social Security Act of 1935, §1128, 42 U.S.C. 1320a-7. Exclusion of certain individuals and entities from participation in Medicare and state health care programs. 1935 Aug 14.

PUBLIC LAW WITH STATUTE NUMBER AND SUBTITLE

  • S.2499 Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Extension Act of 2007, Pub. L. 110-173, 121 Stat. 2492. A bill to amend titles XVIII, XIX, and XXI of the Social Security Act to extend provisions under the Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP programs, and for other purposes. 2007 Dec 29.

CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS

  • Cardiopulmonary Bypass Intracardiac Suction Control, 21 C.F.R. §870.4430. 2002.

FROM THE FEDERAL REGISTER (TREATED AS STANDARD JOURNAL ARTICLE, ON PUBMED)

  • Medicare and Medicaid programs; Deficit Reduction Act of 1984; information notice on Medicare and Medicaid amendments—HCFA. Fed Regist. 1985;50:28988-93.

COURT CASE

  • United States v. Greber, 760 F.2d 68 (3rd Cir.), cert. denied, 474 U.S. 988 (1985).
  • United States v. Kats, 871 F.2d 105 (9th Cir. 1989).

MISCELLANEOUS

THESIS OR DISSERTATION

  • Beaton DE. Are you better? Describing and explaining changes in health status in persons with upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders [PhD dissertation]. Toronto: University of Toronto; 2000.
  • Marx R. A comparison of clinimetric and psychometric techniques for item reduction in the development of an upper extremity disability scale [MSc thesis]. Toronto: University of Toronto; 1996.

PERSONAL COMMUNICATION

  • Galarneau MR, Naval Health Research Center, San Diego. Personal communication; 2008 Jan 7