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JBJS, Inc. Journals Ethics Policies

Revised June 22, 2016

This page is intended to inform the public and all persons affiliated with The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. of its general ethics policies. These policies pertain to all publications produced by JBJS, Inc.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).


In the preparation of a manuscript, authors should, in general, follow the recommendations in "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication" by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.

All studies should be carried out in accordance with the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki. Patient consent must be obtained for all human studies, and that must be stated in the manuscript. If such consent has not been obtained, a letter of explanation must be included with the submission. The authors are responsible for obtaining and retaining the documentation of such permission, which should not be forwarded to the JBJS, Inc. offices in order to protect the privacy of the patients. Patient confidentiality must be protected in accordance with the U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA).

All studies submitted for publication must include a letter indicating Institutional Review Board approval or approval by a similar ethics board, and such approval must be noted in the manuscript. If such approval is not included, a full explanation must be provided to the Editor, who may investigate further.

All clinical trials submitted for consideration (i.e., any clinical study in which patients are randomized into two treatment groups OR are followed prospectively to compare two different treatments) must have been registered in a public trials registry such as Trials should be registered at the start of the research.

All manuscripts dealing with experimental results in animals must include a statement that the study has been approved by an animal utilization study committee. The Editor may further investigate that statement.

Information about the management of postoperative pain for both animal and human subjects must be included.


JBJS, Inc. considers all authors to be equally responsible for the entire manuscript. All authors must sign a document indicating that they have read and approved the contents of the manuscript. Each author must have contributed significantly to, and be willing to take public responsibility for, one or more aspects of the study: its design, data acquisition and analysis, and interpretation of data. All authors must have been actively involved in the drafting and critical revision of the manuscript and each must provide final approval of the version to be published. All authors are held equally responsible for ensuring that documentation is correct and accurate, and that the required permissions have been obtained. No author may disclaim any part of the manuscript.

Any change in authorship (including the order of names and the designation of the corresponding author) after the initial review process will necessitate a signed letter from all agreeing to the change.

Individuals who have contributed to only one section of the manuscript or have contributed only cases should be credited in an acknowledgement footnote.


Articles are accepted only for exclusive publication. Previously published articles, including those published in non-English journals, are not eligible for publication.

All manuscripts that pass the initial review process are screened for plagiarism, which is a ground for immediate rejection. Suspected plagiarism is handled in accordance with the COPE flowcharts.

Redundant publication/submission and duplicate publication/submission deplete the resources of our reviewers and editors. If an author is in doubt as to whether a manuscript might be considered redundant, that author should contact the journal's editor in advance to discuss the issue. Redundant publication/submission is handled in accordance with the COPE flowcharts.

Images may not be enhanced or altered without clear and explicit disclosure in the legend. Any digital manipulation of an image—color, contrast, brightness, etc.—must be applied to the entire image and may not result in misrepresentation of the original image.


All JBJS, Inc. editors have disclosed any conflicts of interest to the Editor-in-Chief, who has resolved those as necessary to ensure that an editor conflict of interest does not impact the review of any manuscript submission. Authors are required to reveal any conflicts of interest when they submit the manuscript, using the form published by the International Council of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). The information contained in the disclosure statement has no bearing on the editorial decision to publish a manuscript. A summary of the statements selected by the author or authors will be printed with the published article and each author's completed ICMJE disclosure statement is available online.

Sources of funding must be disclosed in the manuscript text.

Reviewers, associate editors, and/or deputy editors may have a conflict of interest or a competing interest with regard to the subject matter of a manuscript. Such conflicts are disclosed to the handling editor and/or the Editor-in-Chief as early in the review process as possible. If warranted, a different reviewer will be asked to evaluate the manuscript or the paper will be reassigned to another editor. The Editor-in-Chief has no known conflicts of interest or competing interests and makes the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of all manuscripts submitted.


Scientific articles and all other manuscripts submitted to JBJS, Inc. journals are first reviewed by our editors and deputy or associate editors. Some manuscripts are rejected after such initial review; however, the majority of articles are sent to two or more reviewers for double-blinded peer review. At no time are the identities of authors or reviewers disclosed to one another.

In general, JBJS, Inc. follows the COPE Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors.

Although very few rejection notices are overturned, authors can appeal an editorial decision by sending an email to the appropriate journal's editorial office. The choice to uphold the initial decision, offer a chance at revision, or discuss the paper at an editorial workshop is up to the Editor-in-Chief's discretion.


Material appearing in journals of The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. is covered by copyright. With the exception of JBJS Open Access and authors who choose the hybrid open-access model, all authors must sign a Copyright Transfer and Author Agreement form upon submission of the manuscript. Published articles and illustrations become the property of The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. Exceptions are made for certain illustrations and videos, with appropriate documentation and mutual written agreement.

If published material is found to be fraudulent or to contain falsified of data, or if other evidence is found to indicate that material is in violation of ethical standards, JBJS, Inc. generally follows the COPE guidelines to determine the appropriate action.


Publication of advertisements in journals of The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. does not imply endorsement. Advertisers and sponsors do not have advance knowledge of our specific editorial content, other than the information contained in the table of contents. Content is not edited or modified in any way to accommodate advertisers. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. does not knowingly permit advertising for a specific product in physical proximity to a specific article mentioning that product. Editorial decisions are made without influence by advertisers or sponsors. Advertising sales representatives for The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. have no involvement with specific editorial content, other than knowledge of the table of contents, before it is published.