JBJS, Inc. Journals Author Video Guidelines
Revised July 17, 2018
All publications produced by JBJS, Inc. strongly encourage the submission of videos to supplement and enhance articles. All videos will undergo peer review. Videos must be uploaded via the Video Submissions Site (http://video-submissions.jbjs.org/). The site will provide you with video URL(s) to enter into Editorial Manager when submitting your paper online. Detailed instructions on how to use this site can be found at http://sites.jbjs.org/misc/video_upload_instructions.html.
*Note: Information on how to submit a Key Procedures video article for JBJS Essential Surgical Techniques can be found here.
Purpose of Video
Authors should consider using video whenever a visual or motion demonstration, or audio narration, would enhance a reader's understanding of the content or concept that the author is trying to convey to the reader. Examples are using video (or motion animation) to demonstrate surgical technique, highlight key portions of experimental design, display experimental results, show motion on fluoroscopy, scroll through a series of MR/CT images, or exhibit a patient' functional outcome. Limit usage of text slides or still shots to content that cannot otherwise be communicated with motion video or animation.
- Authors should strive to produce videos to a professional standard. Often, this can be done using readily available, consumer-grade hardware and software, without the need for a professional video crew to shoot and produce the video.
- Video content should be understandable independent of the article text. Careful planning or "storyboarding" will significantly enhance the overall quality of the content.
- Like figures, all videos require a call-out in the accompanying manuscript (e.g., "Video 1").
- All private health information or recognizable patient features should be cropped out, deleted, or "blurred out". If this is impossible or affects the purpose of the video, then written patient permission is required.
- Refrain from including proprietary institutional, industry, or other marketing information or displaying a logo on an overlay.
- Shorter, multiple video segments, shown inline with the pertinent manuscript text, are preferable to a single, longer video that is more difficult for a viewer to navigate. This does not apply to Key Procedures articles, which are composed entirely of video.
- All videos in excess of 30 seconds' duration should have an introductory text slide or "title card" that clearly states the nature and purpose of the video.
- All videos in excess of 30 seconds' duration should include clear and understandable narration. Where possible, the use of text titles can be extremely helpful as a visual guide. For example, "Step 1: Exposure."
- Whenever possible, use a tripod to stabilize the image and minimize shaking.
- The use of music should be avoided.
- When editing, avoid the use of transitions that employ special effects or are otherwise distracting. A simple cross-dissolve or fade is best.
- Videos that are under 30 seconds' duration should be submitted when a very specific result or finding is being demonstrated. For example, a smartphone video of a unique physical examination finding is acceptable without introduction or narration.
Videos that illustrate surgical technique should meet the following requirements:
- Show the surgeon's view whenever possible. A camera mounted on a boom or overhead surgical lamp may be needed to obtain the optimal viewing angle.
- The viewer should be oriented to the position of the patient, the laterality of the extremity, and the anatomical orientation. An initial wide-angle shot provides context and orientation. Zooming to a close-up of the site of interest is best to demonstrate details.
- Anatomical landmarks should be identified with annotations or pointed out during narration. Do this again for close-up views and whenever the orientation or view is changed.
- Ensure as clear a surgical field as possible. Liberal use of sponges and suction is encouraged. Consider slightly raising arthroscopic pump pressure to reduce bleeding. Also, coordinate with surgical staff to avoid crossing of hands, sponges, and instruments into the field of view of the camera.
- Avoid the use of white surgical gloves, as they reflect light and alter the white balance of the video. Brown or tan gloves are preferred.
- Proper lighting is essential. Try to keep the field of view evenly lighted. For close-up views, ceiling-mounted surgical lights will suffice. For wide-angle views, the field of view is often wider than the lighted area and it is best to turn off overhead surgical lights; otherwise, the surgical field will be overexposed. Headlight illumination may be necessary for small regions in a deep anatomical cavity.
- Accurate focus on structures in a deep anatomical cavity can be challenging. If possible, run a test video. Use an adequate-size monitor screen to assess the results rather than the small screens on most cameras. Manually focusing on the target tissue may be necessary.
- Arthroscopic video should clearly describe the location of viewing portal(s) and working portal(s). Displaying simultaneous videos in a "side by side" or "picture within a picture" format is useful to show how external manipulations outside a joint affect the intra-articular arthroscopic view. This may also be done for simultaneous viewing of close-up and wide-angle views—e.g., those demonstrating how to dislocate a hip.
- Narration enhances a viewer's understanding and should be included. Do not attempt to narrate a video while it is being shot. Instead, after the surgical video is edited, write out the narration and then record it on a separate audio track while watching the video. See additional audio recommendations below.
- Intraoperative decision-making should be highlighted in any narration by discussing various options and the rationale behind a surgeon's choice or decision.
- Fluoroscopic video is best recorded directly from the fluoroscope, rather than using a camera to shoot a video of the video screen.
- Resolution and aspect ratio: use the highest resolution possible. A wide-screen (16:9) aspect ratio is preferred, although a 4:3 aspect ratio (minimum of 640 × 480 pixels) is acceptable. Do not distort the native aspect ratio by stretching an image; instead, use a letterbox (black bars) technique as needed.
- Frame rate: a minimum of 30 frames per second is suggested.
- Avoid using digital zoom as this degrades the image quality. Most cameras have settings to disable this feature.
- In most cases, video segments should be less than 5 minutes' duration. For Key Procedures articles, total video length should be 10 to 15 minutes.
- The maximum individual file size is 2 GB.
- Do not compress video for purposes of cutting costs or ease of uploading.
- Although the mp4 (H.264 format) video file is preferred, most other video file types are acceptable, including avi, mov, mpeg, mpg, or wmv.
- Video files should be named using the corresponding number of the video in the text.
- A complete description of recommended settings during recording and exporting can be found here.
Audio and Microphone Recommendations
- For recording someone speaking on camera, use an inexpensive, wired, lapel microphone, with direct input into the video camera, to provide the best audio quality at minimum cost and complexity. This reduces the extraneous background noise (e.g., from ventilation fans or EKG) considerably.
- For recording audio narration to accompany slides or other video with the narrator off camera, use a dedicated desktop microphone, MacBook internal microphone, or lapel microphone, in a quiet room without any background noise.
- Please be aware of your rate of speech and adjust as needed to suit a diverse, international audience. Pauses and a comfortable speaking pace of around 100 spoken words per minute are recommended.
- If background sounds of the surgical procedure are desired, they can be included as a separate audio track at a reduced volume. However, be sure to delete any inappropriate language or private health information so that it is not audible on the audio track.
When joining different video clips together in final production, try to adjust the narrator's volume so that it is at a similar level throughout all of the video clips, thus providing a more seamless listening experience.