Few investigations of venous tumor thrombus (VTT) in primary pelvic bone sarcomas are available. We aimed to identify the prevalence, associated factors, and prognosis of VTT across different types of pelvic sarcomas and to propose an algorithm for management.
We included 451 consecutive cases of primary, bone-derived, treatment-naive, pelvic sarcomas in this study. Demographic data and the results of initial laboratory tests, imaging examinations, and oncological evaluations were extracted and analyzed. Forty-four cases of VTT were diagnosed with radiographic examinations, and 18 of them were verified histologically.
The cohort consisted of chondrosarcomas (41.2%), osteosarcomas (30.4%), Ewing sarcomas (15.5%), bone-derived undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas (5.8%), and other bone sarcomas (7.1%). The prevalence of VTT was 9.8% in the whole group, and associated factors included a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level of ≥230.5 U/L and invasion of the L5-S1 intervertebral foramen. Patients with pelvic osteosarcoma had a high prevalence of VTT (22.6%), and the associated factors in this group included a chondroblastic subtype, an LDH level of ≥187 U/L, and invasion of the obturator foramen and the L5-S1 intervertebral foramen. Patients with VTT had a poor prognosis with a median overall survival time of 14 months. Subgroup analyses of localized pelvic osteosarcoma indicated that the presence of VTT decreased the median overall survival time (21.5 versus 54.0 months for those without VTT, p = 0.003), median recurrence-free survival time (18.6 versus 32.4 months, p = 0.020), and median metastasis-free survival time (11.2 versus 41.0 months, p < 0.001).
VTT is most common in patients with pelvic osteosarcoma as compared with patients with other primary bone sarcomas, and it is associated with several factors. It is a negative prognostic factor. An algorithm for management of pelvic sarcomas with VTT stratified by the classification of the VTT might be beneficial, but further validation is necessary.
Level of Evidence:
Prognostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.