For elective total joint arthroplasty, tranexamic acid (TXA) is considered safe and efficacious. However, evidence of TXA’s safety in high-risk patients undergoing nonelective surgery for hip fracture is sparse. This study aimed to assess whether TXA administration to high-risk patients with an intertrochanteric (IT) hip fracture increased the risk of thromboembolic complications or mortality.
All patients treated surgically for IT hip fracture between 2015 and 2019 across 4 hospitals of a single hospital system were considered. High- versus low-risk patients and those receiving TXA versus no TXA treatment were identified. Propensity scores adjusted for risk differences between patient groups with TXA and no TXA administration were calculated for (1) high-risk patients (n = 141) and (2) the entire population (n = 316). Postoperative mortality, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke within 90 days of surgery were evaluated.
No association between TXA administration and increased risk of mortality or complications in either group was identified. Specifically, out of 282 matched high-risk patients, no differences in mortality (odds ratio [OR], 0.97 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.90, 1.05]), DVT (OR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.93, 1.00]), PE (OR 1.00 [95% CI, 0.95, 1.05]), MI (OR, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.98, 1.10]), or stroke (OR, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.95, 1.05]) were identified.
In our review of propensity-matched high-risk patients undergoing surgical repair for IT fracture, we found that TXA administration compared with no TXA administration was not associated with an increased risk of mortality, DVT, PE, MI, or stroke within 90 days of surgery.
Level of Evidence:
Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.