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Diversity in Orthopaedic Surgery: International Perspectives

AOA Critical Issues

 The Carousel Presidents*

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery: November 6, 2019 - Volume 101 - Issue 21 - p e113
doi: 10.2106/JBJS.19.00355
The Orthopaedic Forum

Abstract: Orthopaedic surgery in the United States is one of the few medical specialties that has consistently lacked diversity in its training programs and workforce for decades, despite increasing awareness of this issue. Is this the case in other English-language speaking countries? Are there inherent national differences, or does orthopaedics as a profession dictate the diversity landscape around the globe?

The Carousel group includes the presidents of the major English-language-speaking orthopaedic organizations around the globe—Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Established in 1952, members of this group attend each other’s annual scientific meetings during the year of their presidency, learning about our profession in each country and building international relationships. In this article, 13 Carousel presidents from different countries explore diversity in orthopaedics in their training programs and the workforce, with an assessment of the current state and ideas for improvement.

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*Members of The Carousel Presidents include Ian W. Incoll, MBBS, FRACS, FAOrthA, MSurgEd, University of Newcastle, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; Lawrence P. Malisano, MBBS, FRACS, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Peter B. MacDonald MD, FRCS(C), Section of Orthopaedics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; Kevin Orrell, MD, FRCS(C), MBA, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, and Division of Orthopaedics, Cape Breton Regional Hospital, Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada; Richard Keddell, MBChB, FRACS, Department of Orthopaedics, Tauranga Hospital, Tauranga, New Zealand; Richard Street, BSc, MBChB, FRACS, Middlemore Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand; Pradeep Makan, MBChB, FCSSA(Orth), MMed, Life Vincent Pallotti Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; Adriaan A. van Zyl, MBChB, MMed(Orth), Louis Leipoldt MediClinic, Cape Town, South Africa; Ananda Nanu, MBBS, MSOrth, FRCS, MCHOrth, FRCSOrth, City Hospitals, Sunderland, United Kingdom; Ian G. Winson, MBChB, FRCS, Avon Orthopaedic Centre, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, United Kingdom; Sanford E. Emery, MD, MBA, Department of Orthopaedics, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, West Virginia; Regis J. O’Keefe, MD, PhD, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri; and Gerald R. Williams Jr., MD, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Rothman Institute, The Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Disclosure: The authors indicated that no external funding was received for any aspect of this work. The Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest forms are provided with the online version of the article (

Copyright © 2019 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
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