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Use of Povidone-Iodine Irrigation Prior to Wound Closure in Primary Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty

An Analysis of 11,738 Cases

Hernandez, Nicholas M. MD1; Hart, Adam MSc, MD1; Taunton, Michael J. MD1; Osmon, Douglas R. MD1; Mabry, Tad M. MD1; Abdel, Matthew P. MD1; Perry, Kevin I. MD1

doi: 10.2106/JBJS.18.01285
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Commentary

Background: Povidone-iodine (PI) irrigation is often used prior to wound closure in total joint arthroplasty, but there are limited reports evaluating its efficacy in decreasing joint infections. The goal of this study was to compare the rate of any reoperation for infection (both superficial and deep) in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) and primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) among patients who did and did not receive PI irrigation prior to wound closure.

Methods: Using our institution’s total joint registry, we identified 5,534 primary THA and 6,204 primary TKA procedures performed from 2013 to 2017. Cases were grouped on the basis of whether or not the wound was irrigated with 1 L of 0.25% PI prior to closure. PI irrigation was used in 1,322 (24%) of the THA cases and in 2,410 (39%) of the TKA cases. The rates of reoperation for infection at 3 months and 1 year were compared between the 2 groups. The same comparisons were then performed using propensity scores to account for differences in baseline characteristics.

Results: The rate of reoperation for infection as assessed at 3 months following THA was similar between those who received dilute PI irrigation (0.9%) and who did not (0.7%) (p = 0.7). At 1 year, the rate of reoperation for infection was similar between those who received dilute PI irrigation (0.7%) and those who did not (0.9%) (p = 0.6). After using the propensity score, there was no difference between the groups in the risk of septic reoperations. For TKA, the rate of reoperation as assessed at 3 months was similar between those who received dilute PI irrigation (0.8%) and those who did not (0.3%) (p = 0.06). At 1 year, there was a greater rate of reoperations for infection among those who received dilute PI irrigation (1.2%) compared with those who did not (0.6%) (p = 0.03). However, there was no difference in the risk of septic reoperations between the groups after using the propensity score.

Conclusions: Despite enthusiasm for and progressive adoption of the use of dilute PI irrigation at our institution, there was not a significant reduction in the risk of reoperation for infection as assessed at 3 months and 1 year following primary THA and TKA.

Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

1Departments of Orthopedic Surgery (N.M.H., A.H., M.J.T., T.M.M., M.P.A., and K.I.P.) and Infectious Disease (D.R.O.), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota

E-mail address for K.I. Perry: perry.kevin@mayo.edu

Investigation performed at the Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota

A commentary by Charles J. Sutherland, MD, is linked to the online version of this article at jbjs.org.

Disclosure: The authors indicated that no external funding was received for any aspect of this work. On the Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest forms, which are provided with the online version of the article, one or more of the authors checked “yes” to indicate that the author had a relevant financial relationship in the biomedical arena outside the submitted work (http://links.lww.com/JBJS/F346).

Copyright © 2019 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
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