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Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes After Posterior Vertebral Column Resection for Severe Spinal Deformity with Five-Year Follow-up

Riley, Max S. BA1; Lenke, Lawrence G. MD2; Chapman, Todd M. Jr. MD3; Sides, Brenda A. MA1; Blanke, Kathy M. RN2; Kelly, Michael P. MD, MSc1

doi: 10.2106/JBJS.17.00597
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Background: Short-term studies have shown improved outcomes and alignment after posterior vertebral column resection for severe spinal deformity. Our goal was to report long-term changes in radiographic and health-related quality-of-life measures in a consecutive series of pediatric and adult patients undergoing posterior vertebral column resection with a minimum follow-up of 5 years.

Methods: We reviewed all patients undergoing posterior vertebral column resection by a single surgeon prior to January 1, 2010, at a single institution. Standard preoperative and perioperative data were collected, including the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22/24 instrument. Radiographic and health-related quality-of-life measures changes were evaluated at a minimum follow-up of 5 years.

Results: One hundred and nine patients underwent posterior vertebral column resection prior to January 2010, and 54 patients (49.5%) were available for analysis: 31 (57.4%) were pediatric patients, and 23 (42.6%) were adult patients. The mean age (and standard deviation) was 12.5 ± 3 years for the pediatric cohort and 39.3 ± 20 years for the adult cohort. Improvements in the mean major Cobb angle at a minimum follow-up of 5 years were seen: 61.6% correction for the pediatric cohort and 53.9% correction for the adult cohort. The rates of proximal junctional kyphosis, defined as proximal junctional kyphosis of >10°, were 16.1% for the pediatric cohort and 34.8% for the adult cohort, but none underwent a revision surgical procedure for symptomatic proximal junctional kyphosis. Of the 54 patients, 30 (55.6%) sustained complications, 5 (9.3%) experienced postoperative neurological deficits, and 7 (13.0%) required a revision by 5 years postoperatively. Significant improvements were observed in the SRS-Self Image with regard to the pediatric cohort at 0.9 (p = 0.017) and the adult cohort at 1.3 (p = 0.002) and in the SRS-Satisfaction with regard to the pediatric cohort at 1.8 (p = 0.008) and the adult cohort at 1.3 (p = 0.005).

Conclusions: Posterior vertebral column resection offers substantial, sustained improvements in global radiographic alignment and patient outcome scores at 5 years. The major radiographic deformity was reduced by 61.6% in the pediatric cohort and by 53.9% in the adult cohort. Despite the high rate of complications, patients experienced significant improvement in the SRS-Self Image and SRS-Satisfaction domains.

Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri

2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY

3OrthoCarolina, Charlotte, North Carolina

Copyright © 2018 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
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