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Erect Radiographs to Assess Clinical Instability in Patients with Blunt Cervical Spine Trauma

Humphry, Simon, MRCS1; Clarke, Andrew, FRCS (Orth)1; Hutton, Michael, FRCS (Orth)1; Chan, Daniel, FRCS (Orth)1

doi: 10.2106/JBJS.K.01502
Scientific Articles

Background: Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are sensitive modalities for the assessment of the spine, but certain injuries remain poorly assessed with supine radiographs. We describe four cases in which cervical spine injuries were proven as unstable with erect radiographs after being previously evaluated with supine radiographs and CT scans.

Methods: A retrospective review of medical records and images was used to identify four patients who presented to a teaching hospital from April to December 2010 with unstable cervical spine injuries that were only demonstrated on erect radiographs.

Results: All four patients sustained either C4-C5 or C5-C6 injuries. Prior to diagnosis, each had been evaluated with supine radiographs that did not demonstrate instability. Computed tomography identified the osseous injuries that were present but did not provide suitable assessment of stability. Three patients successfully underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. The fourth was managed with a Halo jacket because of major comorbidities.

Conclusions: Despite major advances in imaging, these cases highlight the importance of physiological loading and radiographs. The controlled use of erect radiographs to test for clinical instability in patients with cervical spine injuries should be considered except in cases in which instability is already evident on other imaging modalities and/or surgical treatment is already indicated.

1Peninsula Spine Unit, Princess Elizabeth Orthopaedic Centre, Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, Barrack Road, Exeter, Devon, EX2 5DW, United Kingdom. E-mail address for S. Humphry:

Copyright © 2012 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
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