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Optimal Team Practice

The Way Forward

Kidd, Vasco Deon DHSc, MPH, MS, PA-C1; Cawley, James F. MPH, PA-C, DHL (hon)2; Cloutier, Dagan MS, PA-C3; Tankersley, Dennis DMSc, PA-C4

JBJS Journal of Orthopaedics for Physician Assistants: May 01, 2019 - Volume Latest Articles - Issue - p
doi: 10.2106/JBJS.JOPA.19.00010
Professional Issues and Experiences: PDF Only

Optimal team practice (OTP) represents an amendment to an existing American Academy of PAs policy, Guidelines for State Regulation of PAs (HP-3500.3.4), that advocates for expanded access to affordable, high-quality healthcare through modernization of PA–practice laws. OTP also calls for PAs to practice without a collaborative or supervisory agreement with a specific physician, enabling practice-level decisions about collaboration. However, OTP remains poorly understood and relatively under-researched. This article analyzes OTP and its potential implications on legislative efforts, training of PAs, and practice level changes.

1Arrowhead Orthopedics at Arrowhead Regional Medical Center, Colton, California

2College of Medicine, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida

3New Hampshire Orthopedic Center, Boston, Massachusetts

4Arrowhead Regional Medical Center, Colton, California

Disclosure: The Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest forms are provided with the online version of the article (

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