Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries The Evidence That Oral Contraceptives Reduce the Risk in Female AthletesWoznak, Catherine E., PA-S1; Sadowski, Catherine K., MHS, PA-C1JBJS Journal of Orthopaedics for Physician Assistants: July-September 2018 - Volume 6 - Issue 3 - p e23 doi: 10.2106/JBJS.JOPA.17.00047 Review Article Buy Abstract Author InformationAuthors Article MetricsMetrics Women are 8 times more likely than men to injure an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The female ACL has estrogen and relaxin receptors, which affect the integrity of the tissue as the hormones rise and fall. Relaxin, a hormone produced by the corpus luteum, affects connective-tissue elasticity by decreasing collagen, thus weakening the tissue’s strength. Women may be more susceptible to ACL injuries during the menstrual cycle. Taking oral contraceptive pills may decrease a woman’s risk of injuring the ACL by preventing cyclic fluctuations in hormone levels. 1Department of Physician Assistant Studies, Mercer University College of Health Professions, Atlanta, Georgia Copyright © 2018 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.