A healthy 36-year-old man developed compartment syndrome of the posterior thigh with an associated sciatic nerve palsy secondary to an acute proximal hamstring tendon avulsion injury.
Compartment syndrome of the thigh is rare and is usually associated with high-energy trauma. Atraumatic causes have been described, typically involving the anterior compartment. Posterior thigh compartment syndrome is especially uncommon. This case highlights the potential occurrence of posterior thigh compartment syndrome after proximal hamstring tendon rupture. Given the morbidity associated with compartment syndrome, it is important to recognize the risk factors and injury patterns that can cause thigh compartment syndrome.