The objective of this review was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of antimicrobial therapy for patients with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infection.
Among the main multi-resistant microorganisms, carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae is responsible for the mortality of 40% of patients following 30 days of infection. Treatment for carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infection entails the use of high-cost antimicrobials. Inappropriate use of antimicrobials can increase the cost of treatment fourfold. This review aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of antimicrobial therapy treatment for patients with carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infection to better inform decision making in hospital services.
The review included studies on participants 18 years or over with carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infection who had undergone antimicrobial therapy in hospital and acute care services. Studies that compared the cost-effectiveness of different antimicrobial therapy for carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infection were included. Outcome measures were cost per unit of effect expressed in clinical outcome units; this included cost per avoided death, cost per prevention of sepsis and cost per duration of stay. Economic studies with a cost-effectiveness design were considered, as well as modeling studies.
A three-step search strategy was utilized to locate studies published in English, Spanish or Portuguese, with no date restrictions. Two independent reviewers screened titles and abstracts and the full texts of potentially relevant studies for eligibility. Methodological quality was assessed by two independent reviewers using the JBI critical appraisal checklist for economic evaluations. Data were extracted from included studies using the standardized JBI data extraction tool. Data were synthesized using narrative, tables and the JBI Dominance Ranking Matrix.
This review identified eight studies that evaluated the cost-effectiveness of different treatments for carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infection. The results of this study demonstrated that there was no gold standard treatment for carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infection, hence treatment was generally directed by colonization pressure and resistance profiles. Furthermore, due to the moderate quality and limited number of studies, there was high uncertainty of the values of the cost-effectiveness ratio.
Ofloxacin appears to be the most cost-effective treatment; however, conclusions are limited due to the small number and low quality of studies.