Hyperinsulinemia induces hyperuricemia by activating net renal urate reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule. The basolateral reabsorptive urate transporter GLUT9a appears to be the dominant target for insulin. By contrast, IGF-1 infusion reduces serum urate (SU), through mechanisms unknown. Genetic variants of IGF1R associated with reduced SU have increased IGF-1R expression and interact with genes encoding the GLUT9 and ABCG2 urate transporters, in a sex-specific fashion, which controls the SU level. Activation of IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling in Xenopus oocytes modestly activates GLUT9a and inhibits insulin's stimulatory effect on the transporter, which also activates multiple secretory urate transporters—ABCG2, ABCC4, OAT1, and OAT3. The results collectively suggest that IGF-1 reduces SU by activating secretory urate transporters and inhibiting insulin's action on GLUT9a.
Metabolic syndrome and hyperinsulinemia are associated with hyperuricemia. Insulin infusion in healthy volunteers elevates serum urate (SU) by activating net urate reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule, whereas IGF-1 infusion reduces SU by mechanisms unknown. Variation within the IGF1R gene also affects SU levels.
Colocalization analyses of a SU genome-wide association studies signal at IGF1R and expression quantitative trait loci signals in cis using COLOC2, RT-PCR, Western blotting, and urate transport assays in transfected HEK 293T cells and in Xenopus laevis oocytes.
Genetic association at IGF1R with SU is stronger in women and is mediated by control of IGF1R expression. Inheritance of the urate-lowering homozygous genotype at the SLC2A9 locus is associated with a differential effect of IGF1R genotype between men and women. IGF-1, through IGF-1R, stimulated urate uptake in human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells and transfected HEK 293T cells, through activation of IRS1, PI3/Akt, MEK/ERK, and p38 MAPK; urate uptake was inhibited in the presence of uricosuric drugs, specific inhibitors of protein tyrosine kinase, PI3 kinase (PI3K), ERK, and p38 MAPK. In X. laevis oocytes expressing ten individual urate transporters, IGF-1 through endogenous IGF-1R stimulated urate transport mediated by GLUT9, OAT1, OAT3, ABCG2, and ABCC4 and inhibited insulin's stimulatory action on GLUT9a and OAT3. IGF-1 significantly activated Akt and ERK. Specific inhibitors of PI3K, ERK, and PKC significantly affected IGF-1 stimulation of urate transport in oocytes.
The combined results of infusion, genetics, and transport experiments suggest that IGF-1 reduces SU by activating urate secretory transporters and inhibiting insulin's action.