Evidence suggests that sleep disorders are common in individuals with CKD, but the influence of sleep duration and quality on CKD progression is unknown. We examined the association of habitual sleep duration and quality with CKD progression in 431 Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study participants, of whom 48% were women and 50% had diabetes (mean age of 60 years old, mean eGFR =38 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and median urine protein-to-creatinine ratio [UPCR] =0.20 g/g). We assessed sleep duration and quality by 5–7 days of wrist actigraphy and self-report. Primary outcomes were incident ESRD, eGFR slope, log-transformed UPCR slope, and all-cause death. Participants slept an average of 6.5 hours per night; mean sleep fragmentation was 21%. Over a median follow-up of 5 years, we observed 70 ESRD events and 48 deaths. In adjusted analyses, greater sleep fragmentation associated with increased ESRD risk (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.07 per 1% increase in fragmentation). In adjusted mixed effects regression models, shorter sleep duration (per hour less) and greater sleep fragmentation (per 1% more) each associated with greater eGFR decline (−1.12 and −0.18 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year, respectively; P=0.02 and P<0.01, respectively) and greater log UPCR slope (0.06/yr and 0.01/yr, respectively; P=0.02 and P<0.001, respectively). Self-reported daytime sleepiness associated with increased risk for all-cause death (hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.20 per one-point increase in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale score). These findings suggest that short and poor-quality sleep are unrecognized risk factors for CKD progression.