Aggressive pain treatment was advocated for ESRD patients, but new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines recommend cautious opioid prescription. Little is known regarding outcomes associated with ESRD opioid prescription. We assessed opioid prescriptions and associations between opioid prescription and dose and patient outcomes using 2006–2010 US Renal Data System information in patients on maintenance dialysis with Medicare Part A, B, and D coverage in each study year (n=671,281, of whom 271,285 were unique patients). Opioid prescription was confirmed from Part D prescription claims. In the 2010 prevalent cohort (n=153,758), we examined associations of opioid prescription with subsequent all-cause death, dialysis discontinuation, and hospitalization controlled for demographics, comorbidity, modality, and residence. Overall, >60% of dialysis patients had at least one opioid prescription every year. Approximately 20% of patients had a chronic (≥90-day supply) opioid prescription each year, in 2010 usually for hydrocodone, oxycodone, or tramadol. In the 2010 cohort, compared with patients without an opioid prescription, patients with short-term (1–89 days) and chronic opioid prescriptions had increased mortality, dialysis discontinuation, and hospitalization. All opioid drugs associated with mortality; most associated with worsened morbidity. Higher opioid doses correlated with death in a monotonically increasing fashion. We conclude that opioid drug prescription is associated with increased risk of death, dialysis discontinuation, and hospitalization in dialysis patients. Causal relationships cannot be inferred, and opioid prescription may be an illness marker. Efforts to treat pain effectively in patients on dialysis yet decrease opioid prescriptions and dose deserve consideration.