Early diagnosis of acute allograft rejection (AR) is still decisive for long-term renal allograft survival. The aim of this study was to define the role of the chemokine monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG) (CXCL9) and IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) (CXCL10) as early markers of AR in renal transplantation (NTX). In a prospective study, 69de novorenal transplant recipients were monitored and urine samples were collected after NTX for a median of 29 d. In pH-adjusted urine, MIG and IP-10 were determined by modified ELISA. AR was clinically diagnosed in 15 of 69 recipients and confirmed by biopsy in 14 of 15 AR patients (Banff classification). Corresponding to CXCR3-positive infiltrates in renal tissue, urinary MIG was elevated in 14 of 15 AR patients with a median of 2809 pg/ml (quartile 25% and 75% = 870 and 13,000; n = 15), being significantly (P< 0.0001) different from both nonrejecting allograft patients (NO-AR) (median, 25%, and 75%: 96, 1.0, and 161, n = 54) and healthy controls (median, 25%, and 75%: 144, 19, and 208, n = 13). Urinary MIG predicted AR with a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 89%. In AR and NO-AR groups, MIG values correlated well with IP-10 (P< 0.001). MIG values indicated both imminent rejection and response to successful antirejection therapy. MIG was not related to intercurrent infections or other causes for impairment of renal function. In a multivariate analysis, MIG correlated best (P< 0.001) with AR from all AR-associated parameters. In conclusion, urinary MIG serves as a very sensitive and specific predictor for AR, mirrors response to antirejection therapy, and thus may contribute to improved long-term renal allograft survival.