The normalized peritoneal clearances of small solutes depend on the ratio of their concentration in dialysate and plasma (D/P) and the drain volume (Dv) corrected for some measure of body size such as body water (V) or body surface area (BSA). The clearance formulas (D/P) × (Dv/V) and (D/P) × (Dv/BSA) can be used to examine why large individuals tend to be underdialyzed. Large people have low normalized drain volumes (Dv/V, Dv/BSA). It is not known whether size affects the D/P ratios. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between normalized peritoneal clearances (Kt/Vurea, CCr per 1.73 m2 BSA) and four size indicators (weight, height, V, BSA) in 301 patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (four daily exchanges with 2-L exchange volume) who underwent 613 clearance studies. Highly significant (P < 0.001) nonlinear relationships were found between Kt/Vurea and weight (r2 = 0.371), height (r2 = 0.289), BSA (r2 = 0.436), and V (r2 = 0.527); and between CCr and weight (r2 = 0.178), height (r2 = 0.115), BSA (r2 = 0.199), and V (r2 = 0.151). There were also significant negative correlations between the normalized drain volumes (Dv/V and Dv/BSA) and all four indicators of body size. Raw (not normalized) peritoneal clearances and drain volumes correlated positively with size. However, D/Purea or D/Pcreatinine did not vary with any size indicator except for a weak association between D/Pcreatinine and V (r = 0.089, P = 0.028). This association was not confirmed when V was used to stratify subjects into quartiles, and group differences for D/Pcreatinine were tested by one-way ANOVA. This study shows that the exclusive cause of the low normalized peritoneal clearances in large subjects on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis is a low normalized drain volume. No evidence was found to indicate that body size influences the D/P ratio of small solutes. The portion of the variance in normalized clearance explained by size varies by size indicator and solute (urea versus creatinine).