CLINIC AND PRACTICE REPORTS: PDF OnlyManual Techniques of the Shoulder in Aquatic Physical TherapySchrepfer, Robert W.; Babb, Robert W.Author Information RW Schrepfer, MS, PT is Clinical Supervisor at The Center for Aquatic Rehab in Cherry Hill. NJ 08003. RW Babb, PT is Director of Rehab at The Center for Aquatic Rehab in Philadelphia PA, and Cherry Hill, NJ 08003. Address all correspondences to Mr. RW Schrepfer at The Centers for Aquatic Rehabilitation, 14 Olney Avenue, Cherry Hill, NJ 08003 USA. Journal of Aquatic Physical Therapy: March 1998 - Volume 6 - Issue 1 - p 11-15 Buy Abstract Manual techniques are an integral part of physical therapy interventions. Successful performance of any manual technique requires correct therapist and patient positioning. Therapists who choose to perform these manual techniques in water must first gain understanding of the unique nature of water-based manual intervention. Currently, little literature exists documenting correct therapist and patient positioning during performance of manual techniques in an aquatic environment. Thus, the purpose of this review is to describe correct therapist and patient positioning during performance of glenohumeral joint mobilization, manual stretching of the shoulder, and manual resistive exercise of the shoulder in water. This article identifies the qualifiers patient position, manual contact, and direction of movement to describe correct therapist and patient positioning. It is important to note that although the aquatic environment often provides improved access to the patient, some techniques are better performed in a traditional land setting. Presently, therapist selection of aquatic intervention is based on anecdotal clinical experience; further research is needed to scientifically quantify the benefits of manual techniques performed in water. © Williams & Wilkins 1998. All Rights Reserved.