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Purpose: To present a literature review conducted to analyze evidence related to physical activity (PA) and cognitive health in people living with HIV (PLWH), appraise the psychometric characteristics of the study measures, and calculate the effect sizes.
Learning Objectives/Outcomes: After completing this continuing education activity, you should be able to:
- 1. Recall the background information relevant to the review of the evidence related to PA and cognitive health in PLWH.
- 2. Summarize the results and limitations of the review of the evidence.
- 1. Saylor and Sacktor (2016) reported that HIV-related cognitive impairment is associated with
- a. cardiovascular disease.
- b. altered endocrine function.
- c. chronic systemic inflammation.
- 2. According to Mindt et al. (2008) and others, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) disproportionately affects PLWH who are
- a. White.
- b. Latino/Latina.
- c. Asian.
- 3. To meet the diagnostic criteria for HAND, how many of the five cognitive domains involved must be affected?
- 4. According to Heaton et al. (2010), risk factors for HAND include
- a. higher education level.
- b. hypothyroidism.
- c. depression.
- 5. Sanmarti et al. (2014) reported that HIV-associated dementia typically manifests on neuropsychological testing as
- a. deficits in spoken language.
- b. difficulty learning new information.
- c. impaired motor and sensory function.
- 6. Even with combination antiretroviral therapy, PLWH can develop premature senescence, which typically manifests as
- a. frailty.
- b. depression.
- c. reduced motor function.
- 7. As theorized by Ancuta et al. (2008), one explanation for persistent inflammation in PLWH is HIV-induced disruption of gastrointestinal
- a. enzymes.
- b. motility.
- c. mucosa.
- 8. Of the seven studies the authors examined for their literature review, six of them measured which of the following cognitive functions commonly affected by HIV?
- a. delayed recall
- b. verbal fluency
- c. visual learning
- 9. How many of the seven studies reported no association between self-reported PA and cognitive function?
- 10. The study by Monroe et al. (2017) found that which of the following was associated with slower cognitive decline?
- a. multiple positive lifestyle factors
- b. consistent PA at any level
- c. high-level PA participation
- 11. Only one study correlated physical activity with brain imaging and found that, compared with participants who were categorized as “sedentary,” those who were categorized as “physically active” had putamen volumes that were
- a. smaller.
- b. larger.
- c. similar.
- 12. Of the seven studies, four showed an effect for physical activity on cognitive function that was
- a. moderate.
- b. moderate to high.
- c. high.
- 13. In six of the seven studies, physical activity was found to have significant associations specifically for
- a. working memory.
- b. delayed recall.
- c. attention span.
- 14. Of the seven studies, only one had a sample that was more than 50% non-White, thus limiting which attribute of the authors' findings?
- a. validity
- b. reliability
- c. generalizability
- 15. Which of the following tests did Dufour et al. (2018) use to evaluate speed of information processing in PLWH and in noninfected control subjects?
- a. Trail Making Test Part B
- b. Wechsler Adult Intelligence
- c. Stroop Color and Word Test
- 16. For physical activity, all the studies used self-report measures, which have demonstrated
- a. high levels of validity.
- b. low levels of reliability.
- c. high levels of sensitivity.
- 17. The authors noted that the studies they examined did not measure
- a. potential confounding variables.
- b. speed of information processing.
- c. psychiatric comorbidities.
- 18. Kaiser Permanente has developed a two-item “exercise vital sign” questionnaire that converts the findings into
- a. PA scores.
- b. minutes of PA per week.
- c. days per week engaged in PA.
For more than 22 additional continuing education articles related to the topic of HIV/AIDS, go to www.NursingCenter.com.