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Occupational Stress and Burnout Among Health Care Workers Caring for People Living With HIV in Eswatini

Bhembe, Lomthandazo Queeneth SRN, Adv. Midwife, MGH; Tsai, Feng-Jen PhD*

Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: November-December 2019 - Volume 30 - Issue 6 - p 639–647
doi: 10.1097/JNC.0000000000000068
Research Article

We used the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire and Copenhagen Burnout Inventory in our cross-sectional study to examine associations between occupational stress and burnout among 368 health care workers (HCW) who cared for people living with HIV (PLWH) in Eswatini. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were conducted. HCW caring for PLWH reported high efforts, imbalanced effort-reward ratios, overcommitment, and low rewards. Health care managers, physicians, and nurses reported higher work efforts, effort-reward ratios, overcommitment, and personal, work-related, and client-related burnout than laboratory staff or peer counselors. HCW with high work efforts, effort-reward ratios, and overcommitment had significantly higher risks of having personal (odds ratio [OR] = 4.60), work-related (OR = 3.96), and client-related burnout (OR = 2.20). HCW with low rewards had a significant risk of having personal (OR = 3.13) and work-related (OR = 2.08) burnout. Our results suggested the need for policies to reduce work stress for HCW caring for PLWH.

Lomthandazo Queeneth Bhembe, SRN, Adv. Midwife, MGH, is a Senior Nurse, Ministry of Health, Kingdom of Eswatini, Mbabane, Swaziland. Feng-Jen Tsai, PhD, is an Associate Professor, Master program in Global Health and Development, PhD program in Global Health and Health Security, College of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Corresponding author: Feng-Jen Tsai, e-mail:

Sponsorships or competing interests that may be relevant to content are disclosed at the end of this article.

© 2019 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care
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