FeatureChildren Seeking Refuge: A Review of the Escalating Humanitarian Crisis of Child Sexual Abuse and HIV/AIDS in Latin AmericaThornton, Clifton P. MSN, BS, RN, CNMT, CPNP; Goodwin Veenema, Tener PhD, RN, MPH, MS, FAANAuthor Information Clifton P. Thornton, MSN, BS, RN, CNMT, CPNP, is a research nurse and pediatric nurse practitioner at the Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing, Baltimore, Maryland. Tener Goodwin Veenema, PhD, RN, MPH, MS, FAAN, is an associate professor at the Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing and with the Center for Refugee and Disaster Response at the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: July 2015 - Volume 26 - Issue 4 - p 432-442 doi: 10.1016/j.jana.2015.01.002 Buy Metrics Abstract Early identification and intervention for victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) is essential to halting the spread of HIV in Latino populations because children who are sexually abused are at an increased risk of contracting HIV. The recent influx of unaccompanied children into the United States exposed histories of victimization, vulnerability to CSA, and suggested an epidemic of CSA in Latin America. CSA has been identified as a contributory event to HIV infection. The aim of our research was to identify factors associated with CSA and Latin Americans. A systematic review and a document search were conducted on factors associated with CSA in Latin America. Victimization was associated with lifelong risk factors for HIV. Males were consistently underrepresented in the published CSA literature and machismo attitudes may contribute to abuses of sexual power by males and contribute to males not reporting or under-reporting victimization. © 2015Elsevier, Inc.