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Determination of Smoking and Drinking and Preventive Measures in Adolescents

Altay, Naime PhD, RN; Toruner, Ebru Kilicarslan PhD, RN; Citak, Ebru Akgun PhD, RN

doi: 10.1097/JAN.0000000000000029
Original Papers

Smoking and alcohol drinking in adolescents cause significant problems in most countries. The aim of this cross-sectional descriptive study was to determine the prevalence, causes, risk factors, and preventive factors for cigarette and alcohol use in adolescents. The sample included 1,133 students enrolled in grades 9–12. Data were collected using a descriptive data form, the Psychological Resilience and Adolescent Development Scale, and the Family Environment Scale. Most adolescents stated that stress and psychological problems were the causes of smoking and alcohol use. Preventive factors were indicated as developing skills for saying “no,” good coping skills, and peer groups not using cigarettes. The Psychological Resilience and Adolescent Development Scale mean score for cigarette and alcohol use was significantly higher than for nonuse. The Family Environment Scale mean score for cigarette and alcohol use was significantly lower than for nonuse.

Health Sciences Faculty, Nursing Department, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.

The authors report no conflicts of interest. The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of the article.

Correspondence related to content to: Ebru Kilicarslan Toruner, PhD, RN, Gazi University Health Sciences Faculty Nursing Department, Emniyet Mah. Muammer Yasar Bostancı Cad., Besevler, 06500, Ankara, Turkey. E-mail: or

© 2014International Nurses Society on Addictions
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