In this study, we investigated the extent of awareness on the part of alcoholic people with regard to their alcoholism and changes in such awareness over time. We conducted qualitative, descriptive analysis of data obtained during semistructured interviews of alcoholic people and family members with whom they lived during the pre-alcoholic stage. The awareness of pre-alcoholic people was found to involve seven elements and to undergo changes at three stages of alcohol consumption (when enjoying the effects of alcohol, when escaping from a reality difficult to face directly, and when alcohol began to cause health problems). The results suggest that professional support for pre-alcoholic people should be tailored to the stage of alcohol use of each individual case and should include advice on appropriate alcohol consumption. In addition, identification and follow-up of problematic drinkers and short-term intervention are required.
Kiyomi Arai, RN, PHN, MHS, Division of Nursing Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Arakawa-ku, Japan.
Michiyo Oka, RN, PhD, and Emiko Motegi, RN, PHN, MHS, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Gunma University, Maebashi-shi, Japan.
This study was carried out under a financial support from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Scientific Research Program for Young Researchers (B; Physical, Mental, and Social Changes in Pre-alcoholics). The authors are indebted to all subjects of this study and to the director, ward chief nurse, and other staff members of the General Alcohol Care Center of Hospital A for their cooperation with data collection.
The authors report no conflicts of interest. The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of this article.
Correspondence related to content to: Kiyomi Arai, RN, PHN, MHS, Division of Nursing Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 7-2-10 Higashiogu, Arakawa-ku, Tokyo 116-8551, Japan. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org