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Estimating Levels of HIV Testing, HIV Prevention Coverage, HIV Knowledge, and Condom Use Among Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) in Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries

Adam, Philippe C G PhD*†; de Wit, John B F PhD*‡; Toskin, Igor MD, PhD§; Mathers, Bradley M MBChB; Nashkhoev, Magomed MD, PhD§; Zablotska, Iryna MD, PhD*; Lyerla, Rob PhD§; Rugg, Deborah PhD§

JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: December 2009 - Volume 52 - Issue - p S143-S151
doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181baf111
Supplement Article

Background: HIV prevalence data suggest that men who have sex with men (MSM) in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC) are at increased risk of HIV. The aim of this article is to present global estimates on key HIV prevention needs and responses among MSM in LMIC.

Methods: Data on HIV testing, HIV prevention coverage, HIV knowledge and condom use among MSM were derived from UNGASS country progress reports submitted in 2008. Eligible country estimates were used to calculate global and regional estimates, weighted for the size of MSM populations.

Results: Of 147 LMIC, 45% reported at least 1 indicator that reflects the HIV prevention needs and responses in MSM. Global weighted estimates indicate that on average 31% of MSM in LMIC were tested for HIV; 33% were reached by HIV prevention programs; 44% had correct HIV knowledge; and 54% used condoms the last time they had anal sex with a man.

Conclusions: The 2008 UNGASS country reports represent the largest harmonized data set to date of HIV prevention needs and responses among MSM in LMIC. Although reporting is incomplete and does not always conform to requirements, findings confirm that, in many LMIC, HIV prevention responses in MSM need substantial strengthening.

From the *National Centre in HIV Social Research, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; †Institute for Prevention and Social Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands; ‡Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; §Joint United Nations programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva, Switzerland; and ∥National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Correspondence to: Philippe C. G. Adam, PhD, National Centre in HIV Social Research, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia (e-mail:

© 2009 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.