1Stichting HIV Monitoring, Amsterdam, the Netherlands;
2Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom;
3Tissue Typing Laboratory, Department of Clinical Immunology, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark;
4Department of Infectious Diseases, Centre of Excellence for Health, Immunity and Infections, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark;
5Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark;
6INSERM, U1219 Bordeaux Population Health Research Centre, Univ. Bordeaux, INRIA SISTM, Bordeaux, France;
7School of Public Health and Emory School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA;
8Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada;
9Center for AIDS Research, University of Washington, Seattle, WA;
10British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada;
11Division of AIDS, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada;
12Clinic of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, San Paolo Hospital, University of Milan, Milan, Italy;
13Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN;
14Infectious Disease Service, Hospital Clínic-IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain;
15Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain;
16Department of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Frankfurt, Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany;
17Institute of Global Health, UCL, London, United Kingdom;
18Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT;
19Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL;
20University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria;
21Universität zu Köln, Cologne, Germany;
22Service of Infectious Diseases, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland;
23La Fe Hospital, Valencia, Spain;
24Department of Global Health, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands;
25Sorbonne Universités UPMC Université Paris 06, INSERM, Institut Pierre Louis d'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique (UMRS 1136), Paris, France;
26Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Amsterdam, the Netherlands;
27Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom;
28Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands;
29Public Health Service, Amsterdam, the Netherlands;
30Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; and
31Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
Correspondence to: Luuk Gras, MSc, Stichting HIV Monitoring, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, the Netherlands (e-mail: email@example.com).
Supported by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) (Grant number MR/J002380/1) and the UK Department for International Development (DFID) under the MRC/DFID Concordat agreement and is also part of the EDCTP2 programme supported by the European Union. Jonathan Sterne is funded by National Institute for Health Research Senior Investigator award NF-SI-0611-10168. Sources of funding of individual cohorts include the Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA et les hépatites virales (ANRS), the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), the French, Italian, and Spanish Ministries of Health, the Swiss National Science Foundation (Grant 33CS30_134277), the Ministry of Science and Innovation and the “Spanish Network for AIDS Research” (RIS; ISCIII-RETIC RD06/006), the Stichting HIV Monitoring, which is supported by a grant from the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport through the Centre for Infectious Disease Control of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, the European Commission (EuroCoord Grant 260694), the British Columbia and Alberta Health Services, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) [UW Center for AIDS Research (CFAR) (NIH Grant P30 AI027757), UAB CFAR (NIH Grant P30-AI027767), The Tennessee CFAR (NIH Grant P30 AI110527)], National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (U10-AA13566, U24-AA020794), the US Department of Veterans Affairs, the Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the VHA Office of Research and Development, and unrestricted grants from Abbott, Gilead, Tibotec-Upjohn, ViiV Healthcare, MSD, GlaxoSmithKline, Pfizer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Roche, and Boehringer-Ingelheim. The Danish HIV Cohort Study is founded by Preben and Anne Simonsens Foundation. J.M.M. received a personal 80:20 research grant from the Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain, during 2017–2019. M.H. received funding from the Danish National Research Foundation (Grant number 715). R.G. was supported by the Wellcome Trust (Grant number 106680/Z/14/Z). Data from 13 European cohorts were pooled in June 2014 within COHERE in EuroCoord (www.cohere.org and www.EuroCoord.net). COHERE receives funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under EuroCoord grant agreement no 260694.
Conflicts of Interest and Source of Funding: J.M.M. has received consulting honoraria and/or research grants from AbbVie, Angelini, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Cubist, Genentech, Medtronic, Novartis, Gilead Sciences, and ViiV Healthcare outside the submitted work. J.G. has received consulting honoraria from Merck Gilead and ViiV and research grant from Amgen. The remaining authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.
Conceptualization: P.R., M.H., R.G., L.G., M.T.M., D.C., and A.J.; Data curation: A.T., Formal analysis: R.G. and L.G.; Funding acquisition: P.R.; Project administration: A.T.; Resources: P.R., M.H., L.P.R., and F.W.; Supervision: R.G., F.d.W., and M.T.M.; Visualization: R.G. and L.G.; Original draft preparation: L.G.; Review and editing: R.G., M.T.M., F.d.W., R.T., L.P.R., F.W., M.H., J.L.G., J.G., D.C., P.R., M.S., H.C., L.S., A.R., D.G., V.L., T.S., M.C., M.M., J.M., S.M., C.r.S., C.o.S., N.O., A.A.M., J.T., S.M.I., A.T., and J.A.C.S.
Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Web site (www.jaids.com).
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Received June 25, 2018
Accepted October 15, 2018