Secondary Logo

Journal Logo

Differences in Cognitive Function Between Women and Men With HIV

Maki, Pauline M. PhD*,†; Rubin, Leah H. PhD*,‡,§; Springer, Gayle MLA§; Seaberg, Eric C. PhD§; Sacktor, Ned MD; Miller, Eric N. PhD; Valcour, Victor MD, PhD; Young, Mary A. MD#; Becker, James T. PhD**; Martin, Eileen M. PhD†† for the Neuropsychology Working Groups of the Women's Interagency HIV Study and the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study

JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: September 1, 2018 - Volume 79 - Issue 1 - p 101–107
doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000001764
Clinical Science

Background: Women may be more vulnerable to HIV-related cognitive dysfunction compared with men because of sociodemographic, lifestyle, mental health, and biological factors. However, studies to date have yielded inconsistent findings on the existence, magnitude, and pattern of sex differences. We examined these issues using longitudinal data from 2 large, prospective, multisite, observational studies of US women and men with and without HIV.

Setting: The Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) and Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS).

Methods: HIV-infected (HIV+) and uninfected (HIV−) participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study and Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study completed tests of psychomotor speed, executive function, and fine motor skills. Groups were matched on HIV status, sex, age, education, and black race. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine group differences on continuous and categorical demographically corrected T-scores. Results were adjusted for other confounding factors.

Results: The sample (n = 1420) included 710 women (429 HIV+) and 710 men (429 HIV+) (67% non-Hispanic black; 53% high school or less). For continuous T-scores, sex by HIV serostatus interactions were observed on the Trail Making Test parts A & B, Grooved Pegboard, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test. For these tests, HIV+ women scored lower than HIV+ men, with no sex differences in HIV− individuals. In analyses of categorical scores, particularly the Trail Making Test part A and Grooved Pegboard nondominant, HIV+ women also had a higher odds of impairment compared with HIV+ men. Sex differences were constant over time.

Conclusions: Although sex differences are generally understudied, HIV+ women vs men show cognitive disadvantages. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying these differences is critical for tailoring cognitive interventions.

Departments of *Psychiatry; and

Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, IL;

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD;

§Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD;

Departments of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA;

Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA;

#Department of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington, DC;

**Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA; and

††Department of Psychiatry, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL.

Correspondence to: Pauline M. Maki, PhD, Neuropsychiatric Institute MC/913, 912 S. Wood Street, Chicago, IL 60612 (e-mail:

P.M.M. has received speaking honoraria from Mylan. V.V. has received consulting honoraria from ViiV Healthcare and Merck, as well as honoraria for educational activities from the International AIDS Society. The remaining authors have no conflicting interests to disclose.

Data in this article were collected by the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) and the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). The contents of this publication are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). WIHS (principal investigators): UAB-MS WIHS (Michael Saag, Mirjam-Colette Kempf, and Deborah Konkle-Parker), U01-AI-103401; Atlanta WIHS (Ighovwerha Ofotokun and Gina Wingood), U01-AI-103408; Bronx WIHS (Kathryn Anastos), U01-AI-035004; Brooklyn WIHS (Howard Minkoff and Deborah Gustafson), U01-AI-031834; Chicago WIHS (Mardge Cohen and Audrey French), U01-AI-034993; Metropolitan Washington WIHS (Mary Young and Seble Kassaye), U01-AI-034994; Miami WIHS (Margaret Fischl and Lisa Metsch), U01-AI-103397; UNC WIHS (Adaora Adimora), U01-AI-103390; Connie Wofsy Women's HIV Study, Northern California (Ruth Greenblatt, Bradley Aouizerat, and Phyllis Tien), U01-AI-034989; WIHS Data Management and Analysis Center (Stephen Gange and Elizabeth Golub), U01-AI-042590; Southern California WIHS (Joel Milam), U01-HD-032632 (WIHS I–WIHS IV). The WIHS is funded primarily by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), with additional cofunding from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and the National Institute on Mental Health (NIMH). Targeted supplemental funding for specific projects is also provided by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), the National Institute on Deafness and other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), and the NIH Office of Research on Women's Health. WIHS data collection is also supported by UL1-TR000004 (UCSF CTSA) and UL1-TR000454 (Atlanta CTSA). Data in this article were also collected by the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) with centers at Baltimore (U01-AI35042): The Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health: Joseph B. Margolick (PI), Jay Bream, Todd Brown, Barbara Crain, Adrian Dobs, Richard Elion, Richard Elion, Michelle Estrella, Lisette Johnson-Hill, Sean Leng, Anne Monroe, Cynthia Munro, Michael W. Plankey, Wendy Post, Ned Sacktor, Jennifer Schrack, and Chloe Thio; Chicago (U01-AI35039): Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, and Cook County Bureau of Health Services: Steven M. Wolinsky (PI), John P. Phair, Sheila Badri, Dana Gabuzda, Frank J. Palella, Jr., Sudhir Penugonda, Susheel Reddy, Matthew Stephens, and Linda Teplin; Los Angeles (U01-AI35040): University of California, UCLA Schools of Public Health and Medicine: Roger Detels (PI), Otoniel Martínez-Maza (Co-P I), Aaron Aronow, Peter Anton, Robert Bolan, Elizabeth Breen, Anthony Butch, Shehnaz Hussain, Beth Jamieson, Eric N. Miller, John Oishi, Harry Vinters, Dorothy Wiley, Mallory Witt, Otto Yang, Stephen Young, and Zuo Feng Zhang; Pittsburgh (U01-AI35041): University of Pittsburgh, Graduate School of Public Health: Charles R. Rinaldo (PI), Lawrence A. Kingsley (Co-PI), James T. Becker, Phalguni Gupta, Kenneth Ho, Susan Koletar, Jeremy J. Martinson, John W. Mellors, Anthony J. Silvestre, and Ronald D. Stall; Data Coordinating Center (UM1-AI35043): The Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health: Lisa P. Jacobson (PI), Gypsyamber D'Souza (Co-PI), Alison, Abraham, Keri Althoff, Jennifer Deal, Priya Duggal, Sabina Haberlen, Alvaro Muoz, Derek Ng, Janet Schollenberger, Eric C. Seaberg, Sol Su, and Pamela Surkan. Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Robin E. Huebner; National Cancer Institute: Geraldina Dominguez. The MACS is funded primarily by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), with additional cofunding from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Targeted supplemental funding for specific projects was also provided by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), the National Institute on Deafness and Communication Disorders (NIDCD), and the Office of Research on Women's Health. MACS data collection is also supported by UL1-TR001079 (JHU ICTR) from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and NIH Roadmap for Medical Research. The contents of this publication are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Johns Hopkins ICTR, or NCATS. The MACS website is located at

Received March 28, 2018

Accepted May 09, 2018

Approximately 50% of HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals develop cognitive impairment.1,2 Cognitive function in HIV+ men has been well characterized because most HIV+ individuals living in the United States and participating in cohort studies are men.1–3 Women comprise approximately 25% of HIV cases4 in the United States and half of global cases.5 HIV+ women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS)6 show small but significant deficits in cognitive function, particularly in verbal learning and memory, and processing speed.6,7 Few studies have directly compared cognitive function of HIV+ women and men, even though cognitive profiles of HIV+ women cannot be assumed to be the same as HIV+ men.8 Including HIV-uninfected (HIV−) controls in such comparisons is important to determine the expected pattern of sex differences.

Women may be more vulnerable to HIV-associated cognitive impairment compared with men because of biological differences (eg, hormonal and pharmacokinetic) as well as poverty, low literacy, low education, substance abuse, poor mental health, early life stressors, trauma, and barriers to health care. Some studies suggest greater cognitive vulnerabilities in HIV+ women compared with HIV+ men,3,9,10 whereas others suggest no difference11 or show differences only in the pattern of impairment.12

We compared cognitive test performance in a matched subset of HIV+ and HIV− women from the WIHS and HIV+ and HIV− men from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) who were comparable in age, education, and black race. Given previous findings,13–15 we predicted that HIV+ women would perform worse than HIV+ men.

Back to Top | Article Outline


Standard Protocol Approvals, Registrations, and Patient Consents

Previous reports detail the WIHS and MACS recruitment, retention, and study procedures.16–19 Both studies received institutional review board approval at each WIHS and MACS sites. All participants provided written informed consent before any research procedures.

Back to Top | Article Outline


The WIHS is a longitudinal study of the natural and treated history of HIV in women that was established in August 1994 at 6 clinical sites in Brooklyn, New York; Bronx/Manhattan, New York; Washington, DC; Los Angeles, California; San Francisco/Bay Area; and Chicago. WIHS participants in this cognitive analysis were enrolled from 1994 to 1996 (n = 2623) or 2001 to 2002 (n = 1143) for a total of 3766 (2791 HIV+ and 975 HIV− women). An identical number of HIV+ and HIV− male participants were drawn from 6972 individuals enrolled in the MACS, an ongoing longitudinal study of HIV+ and HIV− self-identified men who have sex with men. The MACS was initiated in 1984 with study sites in Los Angeles, Chicago, Baltimore, and Pittsburgh. The MACS has recruited 3 cohorts of participants.18 From 1984 to 1985, 4954 men were enrolled, from 1987 to 1991, 668 men were enrolled, and from 2001 to 2003 another 1350 men were enrolled. Men included in this analysis were from that third enrollment, which more closely approximate the WIHS ethnic and educational composition. Men and women who completed the 4 tests that overlap in the WIHS and MACS—the Trail Making Test A and Trail Making Test B (TMTA and TMTB), Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Stroop, and Grooved Pegboard (GP)—were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. Exclusion criteria included history of toxoplasmosis, brain lymphoma, cryptococcal meningitis (MACS) or cryptococcal infection (WIHS), progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, dementia, transient ischemic attack or stroke, use of antiseizure or antipsychotic drugs, loss of consciousness (>1 hour for MACS and > 30 minutes for WIHS), preference for Spanish as first language, and American Indian/Alaskan Native (WIHS only) because of lack of matching participants in the MACS.

Back to Top | Article Outline


We examined performance on overlapping tests in the WIHS and MACS, including TMTA and TMTB (time to complete), GP (time to complete), SDMT (number of boxes correctly completed within 90 seconds), and Stroop (time to complete). All timed measures were right skewed and therefore log transformed. Similar to our previous publications,6,20–22 demographically adjusted T-scores were created for each outcome. Impairment was examined with continuous and categorical T-scores (scoring in the impaired range, T < 40). T-scores were derived for each individual outcome adjusting for sex, age, years of education, race (African American vs not), ethnicity (Hispanic vs not), and number of previous test administrations (second, third, or later). The T-scores attenuate the expected sex differences in HIV− individuals.

In the WIHS, an abbreviated cognitive battery, including the TMTA, TMTB, and SDMT, was implemented in 2004 at core visits at the 6 original WIHS sites to 1142 HIV+ women and 511 controls. Participants completed the tests every 6 months over a 2-year period. During 2005–2006, the Stroop test was simultaneously administered to 1426 women as part of a cross-sectional WIHS study.23 In 2009, a more comprehensive cognitive battery was administered once every 2 years to 1604 WIHS participants at the original 6 sites. That battery included 4 tests used by the MACS, including the TMTA and TMTB, SDMT, GP, and Stroop.6 WIHS and MACS investigators worked together to maximize comparability of tests, and test administration and scoring procedures. At WIHS core visits, participants underwent physical and gynecological examinations, medical and psychosocial interviews, assessment of current medications and adherence, and a blood draw. This study used WIHS data collected from May 2009 to September 2016.

Neuropsychological testing in the MACS has been summarized.18 From 1988 onward, the MACS semiannual clinical assessment included the TMT and SDMT. From 1988 to 2005, approximately 80% of the men also participated in a more extensive neuropsychological examination that also included the GP and Stroop Tests. In 2005, all MACS participants completed the more extensive battery at least every 2 years.18 The MACS semiannual core visits include an interview covering physical health, medical treatments, and sexual and substance use behaviors, a physical examination, and blood draw. Cognitive batteries from October 2001 to May 2014 were included in the analysis.

Back to Top | Article Outline


Participants were matched at the first cognitive visit with valid TMTA and TMTB, SDMT, Stroop, and GP data. Participants were matched on HIV serostatus, age (±5 years), and education groups of high school or less, some college, and 4 years college (excluding those with postcollege education). We matched on race (black vs nonblack) with priority given to Hispanic, other race, and non-Hispanic white within the black, nonblack classification. Analyses were limited to tests occurring in the 5 years after the initial matching visit and where the complete neuropsychological battery was administered.

Back to Top | Article Outline


Time-varying covariates included HIV serostatus (for 7 seroconverters), age, alcohol use, recreational drug use, cigarette use, and depression, and for HIV+ participants, also included medication use, log10-transformed HIV RNA, and CD4 (per 100 cell increase), CD4 nadir <200, and ever had an AIDS diagnosis. Because income level is captured differently in the WIHS (household income) and MACS (individual income), having Medicaid health insurance was used as a surrogate income measure. For men, heavy alcohol use was classified as ≥15 drinks/week and for women, ≥8 drinks/week. Education was categorized by high school or less, some college, and college degree or more. Illicit drug use since the previous visit was captured for marijuana, cocaine or crack, heroin or other opiates, and other street/recreational drug use. Cigarette smoking was categorized as current, former, or never. Depression was defined as Centers of Epidemiology Study-Depression (CES-D)24 scores ≥16. Additional adjustments were made for previous test exposure, with counts of ≥8 administrations collapsed into 1 category.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Statistical Analysis

We examined differences in sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics by HIV status and sex with χ2 for categorical variables, analysis of variance for continuous normally distributed variables (ie, age, CD4 current, and CD4 nadir), and the Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney U test for continuous variables that were not normally distributed (ie, HIV RNA). A series of generalized linear mixed models (random intercept) were conducted to assess interactions between HIV status and sex on cognitive outcomes. Primary predictors included HIV status, sex, time, and all possible 2- and 3-way interactions. Higher-order interactions were removed from the models when P >0.05. Of primary interest were the 2-way interaction between HIV status and sex and the 3-way interaction between HIV status, sex, and time. The models controlled for relevant sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics (see above). All models were conducted using the proc mixed procedure in SAS, version 9.3.

Back to Top | Article Outline


Participants included 710 (429 HIV+) women and 710 men (429 HIV+) 20 to 66 years old, with 67% non-Hispanic African American and 20% Hispanic in each group (Table 1). The 4 groups were similar in HIV serostatus, years of education age, and black race. Significant HIV status × sex differences were noted in depressive symptoms, Medicaid, smoking, and alcohol use as well as the use of cannabis, crack/cocaine, opiate, and intravenous drug use (P's < 0.001). Although each group had a similar representation of African Americans (67%), groups differed in other race/ethnicity categories (P < 0.001). Among HIV+ groups, women had a higher current mean CD4 count and were more likely to be on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (P's < 0.05), but had a lower CD4 pre-HAART nadir compared with men (P = 0.03). Table 2 shows average cognitive test performance by HIV status and sex at baseline.





There were no significant 3-way interactions between sex, HIV, and time interactions, so we examined HIV by sex interactions on average performance across all time points. For continuous T-scores, the sex difference varied by HIV status on TMTA (P = 0.002), TMTB (P = 0.006), SDMT (P = 0.02), and GP dominant (P = 0.02) and nondominant hand (P = 0.009) (Fig. 1). As shown in the figure, the T-score adjustment attenuated sex differences in HIV− individuals. A female disadvantage was seen among HIV+ individuals, but not among HIV− individuals (P's > 0.19), on the TMTA [B (unstandardized beta weight) = −2.92, SE = 0.63, P < 0.0001], TMTB (B = −2.65, SE = 0.64, P = 0.01), SDMT (B = −1.42, SE = 0.63, P = 0.02), GP dominant (B = −2.23, SE = 0.72, P = 0.002), and GP nondominant hand (B = −3.17, SE = 0.72, P < 0.0001). For categorical T-scores, the sex difference varied by HIV status on the TMTA (P = 0.003) and GP nondominant hand (P = 0.007). Specifically, HIV+ women were more likely to score in the impaired range compared with HIV+ men on both TMTA [odds ratio (OR) = 2.54, P = 0.0006] and GP nondominant hand (OR = 5.12, P < 0.0001), but no sex differences were observed in HIV− participants.



In subanalyses in HIV+ individuals only, significant sex differences persisted on continuous measures of TMTA, TMTB, SDMT, and GP dominant and nondominant hand, after controlling for HIV-related clinical characteristics (current CD4 count, CD4 nadir <200, ever had an AIDS diagnosis, viral load, and medication use) (P < 0.05). On categorical measures, HIV+ women showed a higher odds of impairment compared with HIV+ men on the TMTA (OR = 2.27, P = 0.015) and GP nondominant hand (OR = 7.93, P < 0.001).

Back to Top | Article Outline


Cognitive function was examined in a large sample women from the WIHS (n = 710) and men (n = 710) from the MACS—the 2 longest-running longitudinal studies of HIV disease progression in the United States. We found evidence to support the hypothesis that HIV+ women compared with HIV+ men show cognitive vulnerabilities in aspects of psychomotor speed, attention, processing speed, and motor skills. To determine whether those differences were clinically significant, we also examined sex differences in the odds of scoring in the impaired range. We found that compared with HIV+ men, HIV+ women had a higher odds of scoring in the impaired range in psychomotor speed and attention (TMTA) and motor skills (GP).

For comparison with previous studies of sex differences in HIV+ individuals alone (ie, no controls), we note that HIV+ women in the current study performed worse than HIV+ men on 4 of 5 tests, including the TMTA, TMTB, SDMT, and GP, but not the Stroop. Overall, those findings are in agreement with those from a study of 149 HAART-naive HIV+ adults and 58 HIV− controls from Nigeria.9 Compared with HIV+ men, HIV+ women were more impaired in speed of processing, as well as verbal fluency, learning and memory, and global impairment. In that study, sex differences were influenced by women's higher plasma levels of HIV and higher circulating levels of monocyte-driven inflammatory markers (sCD14 and sCD163). In the current study, most HIV participants were treated, and the sex differences remained after controlling for HIV RNA and CD4 counts, which did not differ by sex. Current findings are also in general agreement with findings from 436 HIV+ individuals (80% men) enrolled in CHARTER (CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research cohort). Compared with HIV+ men, HIV+ women showed a 76% increased risk of decline in a global estimate of cognitive function over a 35-month follow-up.3 We found that the lower performance of HIV+ women compared with HIV+ men did not worsen over a 30-month follow-up.

Previous studies demonstrate some of the factors that may contribute to these findings of a female disadvantage across cognitive measures. We controlled for depression in this study, but other mental health factors that are not available in the MACS have been shown to negatively influence cognitive function in HIV+ women, including stress and post-traumatic stress disorder.21,22,25 Previous studies show that these psychological factors affected cognitive function in HIV+ women more than HIV− women.21,22 Although we controlled for recent substance use in this study, a more thorough examination of substance use is warranted. In the WIHS, cocaine and heroin use had a greater influence on cognition in HIV+ women compared with HIV− women, an effect that was associated with alterations in prefrontal function. Recent work shows an interactive effect of sex and HIV on cognition among substance-dependent individuals, with HIV+ women showing poorer cognitive function compared with other groups.26–28 Finally, these effects may also reflect the influence of menopause20 and sexual dimorphism in immune function,29 pathogenesis,30 and/or antiretroviral pharmacokinetics.31 These possibilities will be addressed in the ongoing studies of WIHS and MACS. Overall, our results show that cognitive findings from HIV+ men cannot be uncritically generalized to HIV+ women, and that instead sex should be considered in studies of the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and treatment of cognitive dysfunction in HIV.

Limitations of this study include no comparison of sex differences in verbal learning and memory because different measures were used (the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test in the MACS and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test in the WIHS), and the magnitude of sex differences may differ between these tests given differences in test construction (eg, ability to semantically cluster on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test but not the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test). Non-Hispanic blacks comprised 67% of the total sample here compared with 40% of individuals living with HIV in the United States,4 so results may not generalize to the broader population of HIV+ individuals. Given differences in definitions of certain covariates between the WIHS and MACS (ie, income, education, and substance use), we determined covariates that could be applied across studies. For strengths, our study has the largest sample size to date of HIV+ men and women and controls. We had a longitudinal design with a follow-up time of 2.45 years with an average of 2.6 assessments per participant. Continued follow-up of this cohort is needed to examine these sex differences with advancing age.

Back to Top | Article Outline


1. Heaton RK, Clifford DB, Franklin DR Jr, et al. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders persist in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy: CHARTER Study. Neurology. 2010;75:2087–2096.
2. Sacktor N, Skolasky RL, Seaberg E, et al. Prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in the multicenter AIDS cohort study. Neurology. 2016;86:334–340.
3. Heaton RK, Franklin DR Jr, Deutsch R, et al. Neurocognitive change in the era of HIV combination antiretroviral therapy: the longitudinal CHARTER study. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;60:473–480.
4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Monitoring selected national HIV prevention and care objectives by using HIV surveillance data–United States and 6 dependent areas, 2015. HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report 2017;22 (No. 2). 2017. Available at: Accessed December 2017.
5. Women U.N. Facts and Figures: HIV and AIDS [online]. Accessed December 7. Available at:
6. Maki PM, Rubin LH, Valcour V, et al. Cognitive function in women with HIV: findings from the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Neurology. 2015;84:231–240.
7. Rubin LH, Maki PM, Springer G, et al. Cognitive trajectories over 4 years among HIV-infected women with optimal viral suppression. Neurology. 2017;89:1594–1603.
8. Maki PM, Martin-Thormeyer E. HIV, cognition and women. Neuropsychol Rev. 2009;19:204–214.
9. Royal W III, Cherner M, Burdo TH, et al. Associations between cognition, gender and monocyte activation among HIV infected individuals in Nigeria. PLoS One. 2016;11:e0147182.
10. Robertson K, Fiscus S, Wilkins J, et al. Viral load and neuropsychological functioning in HIV seropositive individuals: a preliminary descriptive study. J NeuroAIDS. 1996;1:7–15.
11. Behrman-Lay AM, Paul RH, Heaps-Woodruff J, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus has similar effects on brain volumetrics and cognition in males and females. J Neurovirol. 2016;22:93–103.
12. Failde-Garrido JM, Alvarez MR, Simon-Lopez MA. Neuropsychological impairment and gender differences in HIV-1 infection. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2008;62:494–502.
13. Kiely KM, Butterworth P, Watson N, et al. The Symbol Digit Modalities Test: Normative data from a large nationally representative sample of Australians. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2014;29:767–775.
14. Ruff RM, Parker SB. Gender- and age-specific changes in motor speed and eye-hand coordination in adults: normative values for the Finger Tapping and Grooved Pegboard Tests. Percept Mot Skills. 1993;76:1219–1230.
15. Schmidt SL, Oliveira RM, Rocha FR, et al. Influences of handedness and gender on the grooved pegboard test. Brain Cogn. 2000;44:445–454.
16. Detels R, Jacobson L, Margolick J, et al. The multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, 1983 to …. Public Health. 2012;126:196–198.
17. Barkan SE, Melnick SL, Preston-Martin S, et al. The Women's Interagency HIV Study. WIHS Collaborative Study Group. Epidemiology. 1998;9:117–125.
18. Becker JT, Kingsley LA, Molsberry S, et al. Cohort profile: recruitment cohorts in the neuropsychological substudy of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Int J Epidemiol. 2015;44:1506–1516.
19. Kaslow RA, Ostrow DG, Detels R, et al. The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study: rationale, organization, and selected characteristics of the participants. Am J Epidemiol. 1987;126:310–318.
20. Rubin LH, Sundermann EE, Cook JA, et al. Investigation of menopausal stage and symptoms on cognition in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women. Menopause. 2014;21:997–1006.
21. Rubin LH, Pyra M, Cook JA, et al. Post-traumatic stress is associated with verbal learning, memory, and psychomotor speed in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. J Neurovirol. 2016;22:159–169.
22. Rubin LH, Cook JA, Weber KM, et al. The association of perceived stress and verbal memory is greater in HIV-infected versus HIV-uninfected women. J Neurovirol. 2015;21:422–432.
23. Crystal HA, Weedon J, Holman S, et al. Associations of cardiovascular variables and HAART with cognition in middle-aged HIV-infected and uninfected women. J Neurovirol. 2011;17:469–476.
24. Radloff LS. The CES-D Scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychol Meas. 1977;1:385–401.
25. Rubin LH, Wu M, Sundermann EE, et al. Elevated stress is associated with prefrontal cortex dysfunction during a verbal memory task in women with HIV. J Neurovirol. 2016;22:840–851.
26. Keutmann MK, Gonzalez R, Maki PM, et al. Sex differences in HIV effects on visual memory among substance-dependent individuals. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2017;39:574–586.
27. Martin E, Gonzalez R, Vassileva J, et al. HIV+ men and women show different performance patterns on procedural learning tasks. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2011;33:112–120.
28. Martin E, Gonzalez R, Vassileva J, et al. Sex and HIV serostatus differences in decision making under risk among substance-dependent individuals. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2016;38:404–415.
29. Meier A, Chang JJ, Chan ES, et al. Sex differences in the Toll-like receptor-mediated response of plasmacytoid dendritic cells to HIV-1. Nat Med. 2009;15:955–959.
30. Addo MM, Altfeld M. Sex-based differences in HIV type 1 pathogenesis. J Infect Dis. 2014;209(suppl 3):S86–S92.
31. Ofotokun I, Chuck SK, Hitti JE. Antiretroviral pharmacokinetic profile: a review of sex differences. Gend Med. 2007;4:106–119.

HIV; cognition; sex difference; cognitive impairment

Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.