IFN α has been involved in immunosuppression as a master regulatory transcript triggering particularly production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine Il 10. In chronic viral diseases including AIDS and in autoimmune diseases including Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, IFN α is abnormally overproduced.
HIV 1-infected individuals have been subjected to IFN α-Kinoid immunotherapy in a randomized placebo-controlled phase I/II trial (EURIS trial). In patients who developed anti-IFN α antibodies no HIV-related symptoms were observed and their CD4 cell count was stabilized over the 18-month follow-up period. IFN α-Kinoid proved to be both safe and immunogenic and efficient (1).
IFN α-Kinoid was also experimentally assessed in a murine SLE model expressing IFN α conveyed by an IFN α-Adv. Whereas control mice treated with the adjuvant (KLH) or PBS died, IFN α-Kinoid-vaccinated mice in which anti-IFN α Abs were elicited survived over the experimental follow up period without developing lupus symptoms (2). These clinical and experimental studies stress the safety, immunogenicity and proof of concept of IFN α-Kinoid immunotherapy.
1. Gringeri A, et al. Active anti-interferon-alpha immunization: a European-Israeli, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 242 HIV-1–infected patients (the EURIS study). J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1999;20:358-70.
2. Zagury D, et al. IFNalpha kinoid vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies prevent clinical manifestations in a lupus flare murine model. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2009;106:5294-9.