People living with HIV (PLWH) experience high rates of mood disorders (major depression and bipolar affective disorder) which in the general population have been associated with noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk. We examined whether prevalent mood disorders are associated with incident NCDs and multimorbidity (accumulation of ≥2 NCDs) in PLWH.
Adult HIV clinic cohort in Nashville, Tennessee, between 1998 and 2015.
PLWH with ≥1 year of follow-up in the clinic were assessed for cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome (any 3 of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, or obesity), chronic kidney and liver disease, non–AIDS-defining cancers, and dementia. Only mood disorders documented during the first year of care were included. Cumulative incidence and adjusted subhazard ratios (aSHRs) were calculated for risk of NCDs and multimorbidity with death as a competing risk. Multivariable Cox models estimated mortality risk after multimorbidity.
Of 4140 adults, 24% had a mood disorder diagnosed in the first year of care, 51% had ≥1 NCD at baseline, and there were 2588 incident NCDs during the study period. Mood disorders were associated with increased risk of first NCD (aSHR = 1.29, 95% confidence interval: 1.06 to 1.57), incident multimorbidity (aSHR ranging from 1.04 to 1.42), and metabolic syndrome (aSHR = 1.29, 95% confidence interval: 1.02 to 1.64). Mood disorders were not conclusively associated with mortality risk after multimorbidity.
PLWH with mood disorders were at increased risk of incident NCDs and multimorbidity, particularly metabolic syndrome. Focused prevention and treatment of NCDs may reduce the burden of multimorbidity in this high-risk group.