Women may be more vulnerable to HIV-related cognitive dysfunction compared with men because of sociodemographic, lifestyle, mental health, and biological factors. However, studies to date have yielded inconsistent findings on the existence, magnitude, and pattern of sex differences. We examined these issues using longitudinal data from 2 large, prospective, multisite, observational studies of US women and men with and without HIV.
The Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) and Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS).
HIV-infected (HIV+) and uninfected (HIV−) participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study and Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study completed tests of psychomotor speed, executive function, and fine motor skills. Groups were matched on HIV status, sex, age, education, and black race. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine group differences on continuous and categorical demographically corrected T-scores. Results were adjusted for other confounding factors.
The sample (n = 1420) included 710 women (429 HIV+) and 710 men (429 HIV+) (67% non-Hispanic black; 53% high school or less). For continuous T-scores, sex by HIV serostatus interactions were observed on the Trail Making Test parts A & B, Grooved Pegboard, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test. For these tests, HIV+ women scored lower than HIV+ men, with no sex differences in HIV− individuals. In analyses of categorical scores, particularly the Trail Making Test part A and Grooved Pegboard nondominant, HIV+ women also had a higher odds of impairment compared with HIV+ men. Sex differences were constant over time.
Although sex differences are generally understudied, HIV+ women vs men show cognitive disadvantages. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying these differences is critical for tailoring cognitive interventions.
Departments of *Psychiatry; and
†Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, IL;
‡Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD;
§Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD;
║Departments of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA;
¶Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA;
#Department of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington, DC;
**Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA; and
††Department of Psychiatry, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL.
Correspondence to: Pauline M. Maki, PhD, Neuropsychiatric Institute MC/913, 912 S. Wood Street, Chicago, IL 60612 (e-mail: email@example.com).
P.M.M. has received speaking honoraria from Mylan. V.V. has received consulting honoraria from ViiV Healthcare and Merck, as well as honoraria for educational activities from the International AIDS Society. The remaining authors have no conflicting interests to disclose.
Data in this article were collected by the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) and the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). The contents of this publication are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). WIHS (principal investigators): UAB-MS WIHS (Michael Saag, Mirjam-Colette Kempf, and Deborah Konkle-Parker), U01-AI-103401; Atlanta WIHS (Ighovwerha Ofotokun and Gina Wingood), U01-AI-103408; Bronx WIHS (Kathryn Anastos), U01-AI-035004; Brooklyn WIHS (Howard Minkoff and Deborah Gustafson), U01-AI-031834; Chicago WIHS (Mardge Cohen and Audrey French), U01-AI-034993; Metropolitan Washington WIHS (Mary Young and Seble Kassaye), U01-AI-034994; Miami WIHS (Margaret Fischl and Lisa Metsch), U01-AI-103397; UNC WIHS (Adaora Adimora), U01-AI-103390; Connie Wofsy Women's HIV Study, Northern California (Ruth Greenblatt, Bradley Aouizerat, and Phyllis Tien), U01-AI-034989; WIHS Data Management and Analysis Center (Stephen Gange and Elizabeth Golub), U01-AI-042590; Southern California WIHS (Joel Milam), U01-HD-032632 (WIHS I–WIHS IV). The WIHS is funded primarily by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), with additional cofunding from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and the National Institute on Mental Health (NIMH). Targeted supplemental funding for specific projects is also provided by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), the National Institute on Deafness and other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), and the NIH Office of Research on Women's Health. WIHS data collection is also supported by UL1-TR000004 (UCSF CTSA) and UL1-TR000454 (Atlanta CTSA). Data in this article were also collected by the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) with centers at Baltimore (U01-AI35042): The Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health: Joseph B. Margolick (PI), Jay Bream, Todd Brown, Barbara Crain, Adrian Dobs, Richard Elion, Richard Elion, Michelle Estrella, Lisette Johnson-Hill, Sean Leng, Anne Monroe, Cynthia Munro, Michael W. Plankey, Wendy Post, Ned Sacktor, Jennifer Schrack, and Chloe Thio; Chicago (U01-AI35039): Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, and Cook County Bureau of Health Services: Steven M. Wolinsky (PI), John P. Phair, Sheila Badri, Dana Gabuzda, Frank J. Palella, Jr., Sudhir Penugonda, Susheel Reddy, Matthew Stephens, and Linda Teplin; Los Angeles (U01-AI35040): University of California, UCLA Schools of Public Health and Medicine: Roger Detels (PI), Otoniel Martínez-Maza (Co-P I), Aaron Aronow, Peter Anton, Robert Bolan, Elizabeth Breen, Anthony Butch, Shehnaz Hussain, Beth Jamieson, Eric N. Miller, John Oishi, Harry Vinters, Dorothy Wiley, Mallory Witt, Otto Yang, Stephen Young, and Zuo Feng Zhang; Pittsburgh (U01-AI35041): University of Pittsburgh, Graduate School of Public Health: Charles R. Rinaldo (PI), Lawrence A. Kingsley (Co-PI), James T. Becker, Phalguni Gupta, Kenneth Ho, Susan Koletar, Jeremy J. Martinson, John W. Mellors, Anthony J. Silvestre, and Ronald D. Stall; Data Coordinating Center (UM1-AI35043): The Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health: Lisa P. Jacobson (PI), Gypsyamber D'Souza (Co-PI), Alison, Abraham, Keri Althoff, Jennifer Deal, Priya Duggal, Sabina Haberlen, Alvaro Muoz, Derek Ng, Janet Schollenberger, Eric C. Seaberg, Sol Su, and Pamela Surkan. Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Robin E. Huebner; National Cancer Institute: Geraldina Dominguez. The MACS is funded primarily by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), with additional cofunding from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Targeted supplemental funding for specific projects was also provided by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), the National Institute on Deafness and Communication Disorders (NIDCD), and the Office of Research on Women's Health. MACS data collection is also supported by UL1-TR001079 (JHU ICTR) from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and NIH Roadmap for Medical Research. The contents of this publication are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Johns Hopkins ICTR, or NCATS. The MACS website is located at http://aidscohortstudy.org/.
Received March 28, 2018
Accepted May 09, 2018