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Transmitted Drug Resistance and Antiretroviral Treatment Outcomes in Non-Subtype B HIV-1–Infected Patients in South East Asia

Phanuphak, Praphan MD, PhD*,†; Sirivichayakul, Sunee PhD; Jiamsakul, Awachana MSc; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek MD§; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran MD; Lee, Man Po MD; Sirisanthana, Thira MD#; Kantipong, Pacharee MD**; Lee, Christopher MD††; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba MD‡‡; Mustafa, Mahiran MD§§; Ditangco, Rossana MD‖‖; Merati, Tuti MD¶¶; Ratanasuwan, Winai MD##; Singtoroj, Thida PhD***; Kantor, Rami MD†††

JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: May 1st, 2014 - Volume 66 - Issue 1 - p 74–79
doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000108
Brief Report: Clinical Science

Background: We compared treatment outcomes of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in patients on fully or partially sensitive drug regimens.

Methods: Factors associated with survival and failure were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards and discrete time conditional logistic models.

Results: TDR, found in 60 (4.1%) of 1471 Asian treatment-naive patients, was one of the significant predictors of failure. Patients with TDR to >1 drug in their regimen were >3 times as likely to fail compared to no TDR.

Conclusions: TDR was associated with failure in the context of non-fully sensitive regimens. Efforts are needed to incorporate resistance testing into national treatment programs.

*HIV-NAT, Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre, Bangkok, Thailand;

Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand;

The Kirby Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia;

§Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand;

YRG Centre for AIDS Research and Education, Chennai, India;

Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong, China;

#Research Institute for Health Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand;

**Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand;

††Hospital Sungai Buloh, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia;

‡‡University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia;

§§Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II, Kota Bharu, Malaysia;

‖‖Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, Manila, Philippines;

¶¶Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University and Sanglah Hospital, Bali, Indonesia;

##Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand;

***TREAT Asia, amfAR—The Foundation for AIDS Research, Bangkok, Thailand; and

†††Brown University Alpert Medical School, Providence, RI.

Correspondence to: Praphan Phanuphak, MD, PhD, The Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre 104 Rajdamri Road, Bangkok 10330, Thailand (e-mail:

The TREAT Asia Studies to Evaluate Resistance (TASER) is an initiative of TREAT Asia, a program of amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research, with major support provided by the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs through a partnership with Stichting Aids Fonds, and with additional support from amfAR and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the U.S. National Institutes of Health and the National Cancer Institute as part of the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) (U01AI069907). Queen Elizabeth Hospital and the Integrated Treatment Centre are supported by the Hong Kong Council for AIDS Trust Fund. The Kirby Institute is funded by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing and is affiliated with the Faculty of Medicine, The University of New South Wales. The content of this publication is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of any of the institutions mentioned above.

The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

P.P and S. Sirivichayakul are equal co-authors.

Members of the TASER study are listed in Appendix.

Received August 11, 2013

Accepted January 01, 2014

© 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins