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Costing Analysis of National HIV Treatment and Care Program in Vietnam

Duong, Anh Thuy MPH, PhD*; Kato, Masaya PhD, MPH; Bales, Sarah MS‡,§; Do, Nhan Thi MD*; Minh Nguyen, Thu Thi MPH; Thanh Cao, Thuy Thi MD; Nguyen, Long Thanh MD, PhD*

JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: January 1st, 2014 - Volume 65 - Issue 1 - p e1–e7
doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3182a17d15
Implementation and Operational Research: Epidemiology and Prevention
IOR articles

Background: Vietnam achieved rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART), although external funds are declining sharply. To achieve and sustain universal access to HIV services, evidence-based planning is essential. To date, there had been limited HIV treatment and care cost data available in Vietnam.

Methods: Cost data of outpatient and inpatient HIV care were extracted at 21 sentinel facilities (17 adult and 4 pediatric) that epitomize the national program. Step-down costing for administration costs and bottom-up resource costing for drugs, diagnostics, and labor were used. Records of 1401 adults and 527 pediatric patients were reviewed.

Results: Median outpatient care costs per patient-year for pre-ART, first year ART, later year ART, and second-line ART were US $100, US $316, US $303, and US $1557 for adults; and US $171, US $387, US $320, and US $1069 for children, respectively. Median inpatient care cost per episode was US $162 for adults and US $142 for children. Non-antiretroviral (ARV) costs in adults at stand-alone facilities were 44% (first year ART) and 24% (later year ART) higher than those at integrated facilities. Adults who started ART with CD4 count ≤100 cells per cubic millimeter had 47% higher non-ARV costs in the first year ART than those with CD4 count >100 cells per cubic millimeter. Adult ARV drug costs at government sites were from 66% to 85% higher than those at donor-supported sites in the first year ART.

Conclusions: The study found that HIV treatment and care costs in Vietnam are economical, yet there is potential to further promote efficiency through strengthening competitive procurement, integrating HIV services, and promoting earlier ART initiation.

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*Vietnam Authority of HIV/AIDS Control, Ministry of Health, Hanoi, Vietnam;

World Health Organization Vietnam Country Office, Hanoi, Vietnam;

Health Policy Unit, Ministry of Health, Hanoi, Vietnam;

§Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore; and

National Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Correspondence to: Masaya Kato, PhD, MPH, World Health Organization Vietnam Country Office, 63 Tran Hung Dao Street, Hanoi, Vietnam (e-mail:

Supported by World Health Organization Vietnam Country Office and US Center for Disease Control and Prevention Vietnam Country Office. The authors alone are responsible for the views expressed in this [article] and they do not necessarily represent the views, decisions or policies of the institutions with which they are affiliated.

The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Web site (

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.

Received February 21, 2013

Accepted June 12, 2013

© 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins