Since 1994, trials of zidovudine, zidovudine and lamivudine, and nevirapine have demonstrated that these antiretroviral drugs can substantially reduce the risk of perinatal HIV-1 transmission. With reductions in drug price, identification of simple, effective antiretroviral regimens to prevent perinatal HIV-1 transmission, and an increasing international commitment to support health care infrastructure, antiretrovirals for both perinatal HIV-1 prevention and HIV-1 treatment will likely become more widely available to HIV-1-infected persons in resource-limited countries.In the United States, widespread antiretroviral usage has been associated with increased antiretroviral drug resistance. This raises concern that drug resistance may reduce the effectiveness of perinatal antiretroviral prophylaxis as well as therapeutic intervention strategies. The purpose of this article is to review what is known about resistance and risk of perinatal HIV transmission, assess the interaction between antiretroviral resistance and the prevention of perinatal HIV-1 transmission, and discuss implications for current global prevention and treatment strategies.
Address correspondence and reprint requests to Monica Nolan, Project RETRO-CI, Abidjan, MS E45, Epidemiology Branch, Division of HIV/AIDS, NCHSTP, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA; e-mail: email@example.com
Manuscript received February 7, 2002; accepted March 28, 2002.
© 2002 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.