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Koppel Kristina; Bratt, Göran; Schulman, Sam; Bylund, Håkan; Sandström, Eric
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: April 15th, 2002
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Summary:Decreased insulin sensitivity, hyperlipidemia, and body fat changes are considered as risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). A clustering of such factors (metabolic syndrome [MSDR]) exponentially increases the risk. Impaired fibrinolysis and increased coagulation are additional independent risk factors for CHD. We studied the effects of protease inhibitor (PI)-containing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on metabolic and hemostatic parameters in 363 HIV-infected individuals, of whom 266 were receiving PI-containing HAART and 97 were treatment naive. The fasting plasma levels of insulin, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), and fibrinogen were evaluated together with the areas of visceral adipose tissue and the visceral adipose tissue/subcutaneous adipose tissue area ratio. The levels of insulin, triglycerides, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; visceral adipose tissue area; low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratio; and visceral adipose tissue/subcutaneous adipose tissue area ratio were significantly increased in patients receiving PI-containing HAART compared with treatment-naive patients. The levels of PAI-1 and fibrinogen were significantly higher in patients receiving PI-containing HAART. PAI-1 levels were higher in individuals with MSDR but also in patients without MSDR who were receiving PI-containing HAART. PAI-1 was independently correlated to use of PI-containing HAART, triglyceride level, insulin level, and body mass index (p < .001). These findings suggest that patients receiving PI-containing HAART have decreased fibrinolysis and increased coagulability, which may thus represent additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in this patient group.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Kristina Koppel. Venhälsan. Södersjukhuset. 118 83 Stockholm, Sweden; e-mail:

Manuscript received September 26, 2001; accepted December 10, 2001.

© 2002 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins