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Dieleman Jeanne P.; Salahuddin, Saima; Hsu, Yen Shen; Burger, David M.; Gyssens, Inge C.; Sturkenboom, Miriam C. J. M.; Stricker, Bruno H. Ch.; Kok, Dirk J.
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: September 1st, 2001
Articles: PDF Only

Objective:To determine the probable site of the nephron and the plasma indinavir (IDV) concentration at which intrarenal IDV crystallization occurs.

Design:We performed in vitro crystallization experiments in IDV solutions simulating conditions found in the nephron.

Methods:To determine intrarenal IDV concentrations at which conditions in the nephron allow crystallization, several concentrations of IDV basic solutions (0-800 mM) were titrated from pH 4.0 to higher pH values until crystals formed within 1 minute. Based on the combination of pH and ionic strength at which crystals formed, we determined the site of the nephron at which this combination was first attained. Based on the capacity for concentration at that site, we were able to measure the corresponding plasma IDV concentration.

Results:Under conditions normally found at the proximal tubule (i.e., pH 6.7 and ionic strength of 200 mM), IDV crystallized at 200 mg/L. Under conditions applying to the loop of Henle, pH 7.4 and ionic strength of 200 mM, IDV crystallized at 125 mg/L, which would correspond to a plasma IDV concentration of 8 mg/L.

Conclusions:IDV crystallization is most likely in the loop of Henle and may already start at plasma IDV concentrations as low as 8 mg/L. Increasing hydration does not reduce the risk of IDV crystallization in the loop of Henle but instead prevents IDV crystallization and aggregation in the lower urinary tract. It remains to be confirmed whether prevention of high IDV plasma concentrations will reduce the risk of IDV crystallization in the loop of Henle.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to B. H. Ch. Stricker, Room L-448, Pharmaco-Epidemiology Unit, Depts. of Internal Medicine II and Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Erasmus University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2400, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands; e-mail:

Manuscript received December 4, 2000; accepted April 19, 2001.

© 2001 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.