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Copyright © 2019 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without prior written permission from the publisher.

The material presented in the Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons has been made available by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) for educational purposes only. This material is not intended to present the only, or necessarily best, methods or procedures for the medical situations discussed, but rather is intended to represent an approach, view, statement, or opinion of the author(s), which may be helpful to others who face similar situations.

In accordance with AAOS policy, all individuals whose names appear as authors of articles published in the Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons must file a disclosure statement as part of the manuscript submission process. AAOS members do so via the AAOS online Disclosure Database (go to ). If an author discloses the receipt (by himself or herself or a member of his or her immediate family) of anything of value (i.e.,
any item, payment, service, or exchange) from a commercial or other party related directly or indirectly to the subject of a manuscript, a statement to that effect appears as part of the affiliation statement in the published article. Disclosure information for the editorial staff of the Journal and AAOS staff responsible for editorial preparation of Journal content, including Journal online CME questionnaires, may also be found on the AAOS online Disclosure Database.

The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons specifically disclaims any and all responsibility for the contents, advertisements, and other material submitted to and contained in the Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. A reference to a commercial product in an article or in any advertisement does not, either expressly or by implication, indicate that the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons endorses the product, its manufacturer or distributor. The information contained in the Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is provided for educational purposes only.

Some drugs and medical devices demonstrated or discussed in AAOS education programs or materials have not been cleared by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or have been cleared by the FDA for specific uses only. The FDA has stated that it is the responsibility of the physician to determine the FDA clearance status of each drug or device he or she wishes to use in clinical practice, and to use the products with appropriate patient consent and in compliance with applicable law. Furthermore, any statements about commercial products are solely the opinion(s) of the author(s) or advertisers and do not represent AAOS endorsement or evaluation of these products. Author statements in this journal may not be used in advertising or for any commercial purpose.