Spinopelvic dissociation is a rare type of injury which occurs in approximately 2.9% of pelvic disruptions and correlates with high-energy trauma.
The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the incidence, demographics, treatment, clinical outcome, and complication rate associated with these injuries.
A literature review on Medline, PubMed, and Google was performed. Overall, 216 abstracts were reviewed in English, German, and French, of which 50 articles were included.
Within the 50 studies, 19 publications were case reports and 16 were case series with low-level evidence. Overall, 379 patients with spinopelvic dissociation were identified at a mean age of 31.6 ± 11.6 years and an injury severity score of 23.1 ± 3.8 between 1969 and 2018. Most cases were related to fall from heights (55.7%), followed by road accidents (28.5%). Two hundred fifty-eight patients (68.1%) showed neurologic impairment at initial presentation, which improved in 65.1% after surgery. The treatment of choice was surgery in 93.1% of cases with triangular fixation in 68.8%. Regardless of the technique, the healing/fusion rate was 100% with a complication rate of 29.9% (n = 96/321).
Spinopelvic dissociation is a rare type of injury with limited data in the literature. Based on our review, it is possible that a streamlined, evidence-based algorithm may improve care for these difficult patients.
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