From the Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (Mercier, Galivanche, Efthymiou, Wilhelm, Grauer, and Gardner), the Division of Orthopaedics, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (Mercier), and the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA (Galivanche).
Correspondence to Dr. Gardner: [email protected]
Grauer or an immediate family member reports personal fees from TIDI products, personal fees from North American Spine Society, outside the submitted work. None of the following authors or any immediate family member has received anything of value from or has stock or stock options held in a commercial company or institution related directly or indirectly to the subject of this article: Mercier, Galivanche, Efthymiou, Wilhelm, and Gardner.
The following disclosures have been collected and reported per International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) reporting standards.
IRB Approval: This study received approval by our institution's Human Investigations Committee.