Lower extremity total joint arthroplasty (TJA) has an established track record of success and a subset of patients who fail to experience desired improvements. Current TJA success can be attributed to refined surgical techniques, improved preparation of patients for surgery, and enhanced postoperative recovery protocols. One aspect of preoperative patient preparation and enhanced postoperative recovery includes training regimens intended to prepare patients for TJA and facilitate TJA functional recovery (often referred to as using the jargon prehabilitation and rehabilitation). The importance of prehabilitation and rehabilitation is open to debate because of historically insufficient and inconsistent evidence. This review aims to provide direction for future investigative efforts by presenting an overview of current preoperative and postoperative TJA training/exercise programs within the framework of utility, timing, form, setting, and cost.